Why are some policy reforms implemented while others languish? This report aims to answer this important question by looking backwards - at 20 structural reform efforts in 10 OECD countries, during the past two decades. The case studies cover a wide variety of reform attempts in three key areas: pensions, labour- and product-market regulation. Key factors in the political, economic and reform-specific arenas are identified as helping or hindering reform, and these findings are cross-checked using a relatively simple set of Spearman rank correlations. The report's two-pronged analytical approach - quantitative and qualitative - results in unique insights for policy makers designing, adopting and implementing structural policy reforms.