We may know pornography when we see it, but the business of pornography is a surprisingly elusive subject. Reliable figures about the industry are difficult to come by and widely disputed, but one matter that is hardly debatable is that pornography is a major and ubiquitous enterprise. Porn allegedly accounts for one-third of all internet traffic currently, though the data about actual consumption is unclear. Reports in recent years have suggested that 70 million individuals visit porn sites every week; that among viewers aged 18-24, women watch more porn than men; and that among middle-aged, white-collar workers, three-quarters of men and half of women have admitted to looking at pornography websites while at work. While debates and emotions around porn can run high, there is a crucial need for reliable information and rational conversation. In this book, Shira Tarrant parses the wide range of statistics that we have on the pornography industry, sorting myth from reality in an objective, fascinating and knowledgeable fashion. She looks at ongoing political controversies around the industry, the feminist porn wars, the views of the religious right, the history of pornography, landmark legal cases, and the latest in medical research. The Pornography Industry also explains the industry basics -who works in porn, why people become performers, how much they earn, and what happens on a porn set. It further delves into important questions such as: how many teenagers watch porn and should we worry about it? What is porn piracy and can it be stopped? What can the industry do about sexist and racist pornography? Does porn cause violence against women? Can people become addicted to porn? Is watching porn the same as infidelity? By presenting competing perspectives in an even-handed way, The Pornography Industry will enable readers to explore these provocative issues and make their own best decisions about the debates.
About the Author
Shira Tarrant is Professor of Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies at California State University, Long Beach.
Table of ContentsAcknowledgments Introduction 1. Overview What is the definition of pornography? What is the difference between erotica and porn? Why does pornography matter? Is pornography a crime, a sin, a vice, or a choice? If pornography is a private issue, why talk about it in public? What makes pornography a valence issue? 2. Historical Questions When did pornography begin? How has pornography changed over time? How has technology impacted pornography? How did porn evolve in the twentieth-century? What are stag films? What is the golden era of porn? What is the video era of porn? What is the digital era of porn? What is some of the most famous (or infamous) porn in history? 3. The Pornography Industry What is the difference between mainstream and indie porn? What is the difference between features, gonzo, and unscripted porn? What are some of the leading industry organizations and publications? Where is most pornography made? What does an average contract look like? What kind of records need to be kept? What happens on a porn shoot? How much does it cost to produce porn? How much revenue does pornography generate EL and how accurate are these figures? Stolen porn: What is Internet piracy? What efforts are being made to address porn piracy? What are the awards given for porn? 4. Porn Performers How much are porn performers paid? How do rates vary? What is the pay for magazine shoots and adult-themed products? What are cam sites and how much do performers earn? What is it like to work in porn? Do porn performers enjoy having sex for the camera? Why do people become porn performers? What is the "damaged goods" hypothesis? Is this hypothesis true? What are some concerns about porn performers' well-being? How do performers transition out of the adult industry? 5. Who's Watching Porn? Is it true that men are more visually aroused than women? What are the demographics on porn use? How does age make a difference? How many people watch porn while they're at work? What is the data on men and women watching porn? What is the data on couples watching porn together? How does porn use correlate to religious and political views? What is the data on global porn use? How is this demographic information collected? What are the challenges in data collection? How might stigma and stereotypes about gender impact the data on who uses porn? 6. Pleasure and Danger in Pornography Does pornography cause violence against women? What are the debates and the data? Does pornography cause sexism and racism? Are there links between pornography and human sex trafficking? Does pornography mean that we are what we watch? What is the impact of pornography on marriage and relationships? Does pornography have positive benefits? 7. Legal Issues Why does the First Amendment protect pornography as free speech? What makes pornography different from obscenity? What are some of the important legal cases regarding pornography in the U.S.? What is Measure B? What are some of the global pornography laws? 8. Medical Issues Are porn performers at risk of contracting STIs or HIV? What are the STI testing requirements for porn performers? What are some changes in STI testing and health safety protocol? What happens if a test is positive? Are there other health concerns related to the adult film industry? What is labiaplasty? Is there a problem with anal sex? Is waxing dangerous? What are the debates about pornography addiction? Are there links between pornography use and erectile dysfunction? 9. Children and Teens Using Pornography How many youth are watching porn? And how old are they when they start? What are key concerns about the effects on teens watching porn? Is sexting a form of pornography? What are parental controls-and are they effective? What is porn literacy-and how can it help? 10. The Future of Porn Will pornography become fair trade? Will feminist porn become more popular? Will more porn be made for women? What is queer porn? Will pornography be taught in college? How might technology change pornography? What about porn in space? Will people ever stop fighting about porn? Notes Suggested Readings Index