ISBN-10:
0205285961
ISBN-13:
9780205285969
Pub. Date:
07/06/2000
Publisher:
Pearson
The Psychology of Women: A Lifespan Perspective / Edition 1

The Psychology of Women: A Lifespan Perspective / Edition 1

by Claire A. Etaugh, Judith S. Bridges

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Overview

Chronologically organized, this book recognizes that a woman's life experiences change as she goes through different age stages. In this rapidly expanding field of psychology, Etaugh and Bridges present this new book which draws on a rich blend of current and classical research to present a broad range of issues relevant to girls and women throughout their lifespan. Instead of the traditional, topical approach to the subject, the authors employ a chronological approach. This approach communicates the complexity and interconnections among physical, educational/employment, and interpersonal experiences of girls and women during each developmental stage of life. The inclusion of classic studies, up-to-date research, an engaging, first-person writing style, and the authors' own personal experiences helps construct a non-hierarchical relationship between the authors and their readers. For anyone interested in the psychology of women or gender studies.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780205285969
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 07/06/2000
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 540
Product dimensions: 7.52(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.39(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
About the Authors xix
Introduction to the Psychology of Women: History and Research
1(24)
Definitions: Sex and Gender
2(1)
Women and Men: Similar or Different?
3(1)
Similarities Approach
3(1)
Differences Approach
3(1)
Feminism
4(3)
History of Women in Psychology
7(2)
Women and the American Psychological Association
7(1)
Women's Contributions
8(1)
History of the Psychology of Women
9(1)
The Early Years
9(1)
The Recent Years
10(1)
Study of the Psychology of Women
10(8)
Bias in Psychological Research
10(7)
Feminist Research Methods
17(1)
Drawing Conclusions from Multiple Studies
18(2)
Narrative Approach
18(1)
Meta-Analysis
19(1)
Themes in the Text
20(5)
Diversity of Women's Experiences
20(1)
Gender Differences in Power
21(1)
Social Construction of Gender
22(3)
Cultural Representation of Gender
25(28)
Stereotypes of Females and Males
27(8)
The Content of Gender Stereotypes
28(1)
The Perceiver's Ethnicity and Gender Stereotypes
29(1)
The Target's Characteristics and Gender Stereotypes
30(2)
Stereotypes of Girls and Boys
32(1)
Bases for Gender Stereotypes
32(2)
Stereotypes Based on Identity Labels
34(1)
Sexism
35(4)
Ambivalent Sexism
36(1)
Changes in Sexist Attitudes over Time
37(1)
Neosexism or Modern Sexism
37(1)
Experiences with Sexism
37(2)
Representation of Gender in the Media
39(5)
Underrepresentation of Females
40(1)
Underrepresentation of Specific Groups of Females
41(1)
Portrayal of Gender-Based Social Roles
41(1)
Depiction of Female Communion and Male Agency
42(1)
Emphasis on Female Attractiveness and Sexuality
43(1)
Significance of Gender-Role Media Images
44(1)
Representation of Gender in the English Language
44(9)
Language Practices Based on the Assumption that Male is Normative
46(3)
Negative Terms for Females
49(2)
Significance of the Differential Treatment of Females and Males in Language
51(2)
Gender Self-Concept: Developmental Processes and Individual Differences
53(33)
Gender Self-Concept
55(1)
Prenatal Development
55(6)
Stages of Prenatal Sex Differentiation
56(2)
Anomalies of Prenatal Development
58(3)
Theories of Gender Typing
61(10)
Psychoanalytic Theory
61(2)
Social Learning Theory
63(3)
Cognitive Development Theory
66(2)
Gender Schema Theory
68(3)
Gender-Related Traits
71(5)
Changes in Gender-Related Traits over Time
73(1)
Gender-Related Traits and Ethnicity
74(1)
Gender-Related Traits and Psychological Adjustment
74(2)
Evaluation of the Concept of Androgyny
76(1)
Gender Attitudes
76(10)
Individual Differences in Gender-Related Attitudes
78(3)
Perceived Value of Female versus Male Gender-Related Attributes
81(5)
Infancy and Childhood
86(24)
Children's Knowledge and Beliefs about Gender
88(2)
Distinguishing between Females and Males
88(1)
Gender Identity and Self-Perceptions
88(1)
Gender Stereotypes
88(2)
Gender-Related Activities and Interests
90(4)
Physical Performance and Sports
90(1)
Toys and Play
91(1)
Gender Segregation
92(2)
Gender-Related Social Behaviors and Personality Traits
94(3)
Aggression
94(1)
Prosocial Behavior
95(1)
Influenceability
95(1)
Emotionality
96(1)
Moral Reasoning
97(1)
Influences on Gender Development
97(5)
Parents
98(3)
School
101(1)
Peers
102(1)
Media
102(1)
Child Sexual Abuse
102(8)
Incidence
103(1)
Consequences
104(1)
Memories of Child Sexual Abuse: Repressed or False?
105(1)
Prevention
106(1)
Treatment
107(3)
Adolescence: Physical Development and Health Issues
110(30)
Puberty
111(3)
Gender Differences in Puberty
113(1)
Early and Late Maturation in Girls
113(1)
Menstruation
114(6)
The Menstrual Cycle
114(1)
Menarche
115(2)
Menstrual Pain
117(1)
Attitudes toward Menstruation
117(1)
Menstrual Joy
117(1)
Premenstrual Syndrome
118(2)
Sexuality
120(8)
Sexual Activity
120(1)
Teenage Pregnancy
121(2)
Contraception
123(2)
Abortion
125(3)
Health Issues
128(9)
Body Image
128(2)
Eating Disorders
130(3)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
133(4)
Mental Health
137(3)
Adolescence: Psychosocial and Cognitive Development
140(22)
Psychosocial Development
141(8)
Identity
141(1)
Self-Esteem
142(2)
Gender Intensification
144(1)
Friendships
145(1)
Dating
146(3)
Education and Cognitive Skills
149(13)
The Educational Environment for Girls
149(1)
Gender Comparison of Cognitive Abilities
150(12)
Young Adulthood: Physical Development and Health
162(26)
Sexuality
164(5)
Sexual Anatomy and Sexual Response
164(1)
Sexual Attitudes
165(1)
Sexual Behavior
166(1)
Sexual Dysfunctions
167(2)
Lesbians and Bisexual Women
169(6)
Bisexual Women
170(1)
Attitudes toward Lesbians
171(2)
Lesbian Health and Health Care
173(1)
Mental Health of Lesbians
174(1)
Explanations of Sexual Orientation
174(1)
Pregnancy and Childbirth
175(5)
Pregnancy
175(1)
Childbirth
176(3)
Postpartum Distress
179(1)
Infertility
179(1)
Mental Health and Illness
180(3)
Alcohol Use and Abuse
181(2)
Other Types of Substance Abuse
183(1)
Health Services
183(5)
The Physician-Patient Relationship
184(1)
Women of Color and Health Care
185(3)
Young Adulthood: Education and Employment
188(29)
Women's Educational Expectations and Values
189(1)
Women's Educational Experiences
190(10)
Educational Attainment
190(2)
Campus Climate
192(8)
Women's Work-Related Goals
200(5)
Career Aspirations
200(3)
Work-Family Expectations
203(2)
Salary Expectations
205(1)
Influences on Women's Achievement Level and Career Decisions
205(7)
Orientation to Achievement
206(2)
Personality Characteristics
208(1)
Sexual Orientation
209(1)
Social and Cultural Factors
210(2)
Job-Related Characteristics
212(1)
Career Counseling
212(1)
Entering the Workplace
213(4)
Middle Adulthood: Physical Development and Health
217(34)
Physical Development
219(2)
Physical Appearance
219(1)
The Double Standard of Aging
219(2)
Reproductive Functioning and Sexuality
221(11)
Menopause
221(2)
Osteoporosis
223(4)
Hormone Replacement Therapy
227(3)
Sexuality
230(2)
Physical Health
232(12)
Heart Disease
232(4)
Breast Cancer
236(6)
Reproductive System Disorders
242(2)
Mental Health and Illness
244(7)
Depression
244(2)
Anxiety Disorders
246(1)
Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychological Disorders
246(5)
Middle Adulthood: Employment
251(32)
Women's Preference for Employment
253(1)
Employment Rates
254(1)
Gender Differences in Occupational Distribution
254(2)
Gender Differences in Job Levels
256(5)
Comparative Job Levels
256(1)
Barriers That Hinder Women's Advancement
257(4)
Gender Differences in Salaries
261(4)
Comparative Salaries
261(1)
Reasons for Differences in Salaries
262(3)
Women's Perceptions of Their Salaries
265(1)
Sexual Harassment
265(7)
Incidence
267(3)
Explanations
270(1)
Women's Responses
270(1)
Consequences
271(1)
Women's Evaluations of Their Jobs
272(2)
Midlife Transitions
274(3)
Satisfaction with Life Roles
275(1)
Regrets about Life Direction
275(1)
Making Changes
276(1)
Limited Samples of Midlife Women
277(1)
Changing the Workplace
277(6)
Organizational Procedures and Policies
278(2)
Strategies for Women
280(3)
Young and Middle Adulthood: Interpersonal Issues I: Close Relationships and Intimate Violence
283(37)
Communication Style
285(3)
Verbal Communication
285(2)
Nonverbal Communication
287(1)
Friendship
288(2)
Gender Differences in Friendship
288(1)
Marriage, Social Class, and Friendship
289(1)
Lesbian Friendships
289(1)
Dating Relationships
290(3)
Importance of Physical Attractiveness
290(1)
Gender-Related Behaviors and Roles in Dating Relationship
290(1)
Perception of Sexual Interest
291(2)
Committed Relationships
293(4)
Marriage
293(1)
Cohabitation
294(1)
Lesbian Relationships
295(2)
Unattached Lifestyles
297(3)
Divorce
297(2)
Singlehood
299(1)
Motherhood
300(7)
Stereotypes of Mothers
300(2)
Single Mothers
302(1)
Lesbian Mothers
303(1)
The Postparental Period
304(3)
Intimate Violence
307(13)
Rape
307(6)
Domestic Violence
313(7)
Young and Middle Adulthood: Interpersonal Issues II: Balancing Family and Work
320(25)
Attitudes toward Women's Family and Employment Roles
322(2)
Division of Household Labor
324(5)
Women's and Men's Family Responsibilities
324(2)
Women's Perceptions of the Division of Family Labor
326(1)
Explanations of the Division of Family Labor
327(2)
Family-Work Coordination
329(16)
Women's Experiences with Maternity Leave
329(1)
Women's Experiences Balancing Family and Work
330(5)
Effects of Mothers' Employment on Children
335(2)
Effects of Wives' Employment on the Marital Relationship
337(1)
Solutions to Family-Work Balancing Difficulties
338(7)
Later Adulthood: Physical Development and Health
345(25)
Physical Development
347(1)
Sexuality
347(5)
Benefits of Sexual Activity in Later Life
349(1)
Sexual Behavior of the Elderly
349(1)
Factors Affecting Sexual Behavior
350(1)
Enhancing Sexuality in Later Life
351(1)
AIDS
352(1)
Childbearing in the Later Years
352(1)
Physical Health
353(4)
Gender Differences in Mortality
354(1)
Social Class and Ethnic Differences
355(1)
Gender Differences in Illness
356(1)
Disability
357(1)
Mental Health
357(3)
Depression
357(1)
Suicide
358(2)
Health Services
360(4)
The Physician-Patient Relationship
360(1)
Type and Quality of Care
360(1)
Women of Color and Health Care
361(1)
Health Insurance
361(3)
Promoting Good Health
364(6)
Physical Activity and Exercise
364(2)
Factors Linked to Women's Activity Levels
366(1)
Nutrition
367(3)
Later Adulthood: Employment and Economic Issues
370(21)
The Older Woman Worker
371(4)
Why Do Older Women Work?
372(1)
Age Discrimination in the Workplace
373(1)
Entering the Workforce in Later Life
373(2)
Retirement
375(3)
The Retirement Decision
375(1)
Adjustment to Retirement
376(2)
Leisure Activities
378(4)
Economic Issues
382(9)
Poverty
382(2)
Women's Earning and Labor Force Patterns
384(1)
Social Security
384(2)
Pensions
386(1)
Income from Savings and Investments
387(1)
Economic Planning for Retirement
388(3)
Later Adulthood: Interpersonal Issues
391(27)
Attitudes toward Elderly Women and Men
392(3)
Relationships in Later Life
395(8)
Marriage
395(1)
Lesbian Partnerships
396(1)
Single Women
396(1)
Adult Children
397(1)
Grandchildren
397(3)
Siblings
400(1)
Parents
401(2)
Friends
403(1)
Widowhood or Loss of a Partner
403(3)
Reaction and Adjustment to Widowhood
404(2)
Loss of a Lesbian Partner
406(1)
Living Arrangements
406(4)
Own Home
406(1)
Living with Relatives
407(1)
Retirement Communities
408(1)
Nursing Homes
408(1)
Homelessness
409(1)
Living in the City and in the Suburbs
409(1)
Elder Abuse
410(3)
Types of Abuse
410(2)
Who Is Abused and Who Abuses?
412(1)
What Can Be Done?
412(1)
The Vital Older Woman
413(5)
Who Are the Vital Older Women?
414(1)
Fulfilling Activities in Later Life
414(4)
A Feminist Future: Goals, Actions, and Attitudes
418(17)
Feminist Goals
419(2)
Greater Equality of Power and Focus on the Diversity of Women
419(1)
Greater Flexibility in the Social Construction of Gender
420(1)
Actions to Achieve These Goals
421(7)
Research and Teaching
421(1)
Socialization of Children
422(3)
Institutional Procedures
425(1)
Individual Actions
426(1)
Collective Action
426(2)
Feminist Beliefs
428(3)
Feminist Identification
430(1)
Women's Studies Courses and Feminist Beliefs
431(1)
Postscript
431(4)
References 435(78)
Name Index 513(20)
Subject Index 533

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