THE PURPOSEFUL ARGUMENT: A PRACTICAL GUIDE encourages students to recognize where argument fits into their lives and how it can be a practical response to the issues in a variety of communitiesSchool, Workplace, Family, Neighborhood, Social-Cultural, Consumer, and Concerned Citizen. When students are encouraged to honor and respond to issues that matter to them, their investment becomes evident and their writing purposeful. Students learn how argument can become an essential negotiating skill in their livesboth in school and beyond. With a focus on accessibility, THE PURPOSEFUL ARGUMENT relies on clear explanations, explicit examples, and practical step-by-step exercises that guide students through the process of building an argument. An innovative anthology of arguments and readings, arranged by community, covers a wide range of cutting-edge issues that address concerns of many student writers.
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Table of Contents
Part I: HOW GOOD ARGUMENTS WORK. 1. Argue In Real Life. What Argument Is and What Argument Is Not. Recognize Where Argument is Appropriate in Real Life. Argue About Issues that Matter to You. Establish Local Context for an Issue Using the Research Process. Find Your Place Among Others: Negotiate Opposition. Stake and Defend Your Claim. Vary the Support You Bring to an Argument. Structure Your Argument. Recognize Why Arguments Break Down. Take Ownership of Your Argument. 2. Choose an Issue. Determine What Matters to You and Why. Choose an Issue within a Topic. Define Your Audience. Argue at the Right Moment. Getting Started. 3. Develop a Research Plan. Collect a basic reference desk and use encyclopedias profitably. Gather Search Terms. Use search engines to find Internet sources on the Surface Web and on the Deep Web. Perform keyword queries. Find news sites and use RSS feeds to receive updates. Find and use databases in libraries. Find and use primary, government, and multimedia sources. Find books. 4. Evaluate, Read, and Use Resources in Your Writing. Take Notes, Read Critically, and Evaluate Internet Sites. Take Notes, Read Critically, and Evaluate Articles. Take Notes and Read Books Critically. Take Notes and Evaluate Primary Sources. Introduce and Comment on Sources. Quote and Cite Quotations. Summarize and Cite Summaries. Paraphrase and Cite Paraphrases. Avoid Plagiarism. Documentation: Works Cited Page. 5. Read Critically and Avoid Fallacies. Avoid Fallacies of Choice. Avoid Fallacies of Support. Avoid Fallacies of Emotion. Avoid Fallacies of Inconsistency. Part II: HOW TO PLAN, STRUCTURE AND DELIVER AN ARGUMENT. 6. Negotiate Opposition. Why the Opposition Matters. Resist Easy Generalizations. Listen to Local Voices. Summarize Other Voices Fairly. Value Expertise Over Advocacy. Avoid Bias When You Summarize. Find Points of Overlap. Respond to Other Views. 7. Explore an Issue. Prewrite on Your Issue. Develop an Argument Strategy. Use Definitions. Discover Causes or Consequences. Present Comparisons. Propose a Solution. Evaluate Your Claim. Write an Exploratory Essay. 8. Kinds of Argument. Structure an Argument to Fit Your Purpose. Toulmin-Based Argument. Middle Ground Argument. Rogerian Argument. Argument Based on a Microhistory. 9. Build Arguments. How a Claim Functions. Five Kinds of Claims. Use Reasons to Support Your Claim.. Build Body Paragraphs Around Reasons. Use Qualifiers to Make Your Argument Believable. Justify Your Claim with a Warrant. Use Your Audience to Construct a Warrant. Use Backing to Support a Warrant. Respond to Audience Reservations to Make a Warrant Believable. 10. Support an Argument with Fact (Logos), Credibility (Ethos), and Emotion (Pathos). Field Specific Support. Use All Three General Kinds of Support. Use Support Based on Facts and Research (Logos). Use Support to Establish Your Credibility (Ethos). Use Support to Create Emotion (Pathos). Part III: HOW TO TAKE OWNERSHIP OF YOUR ARGUMENT: A STYLE GUIDE. 11. Enhance Your Argument with Visuals and Humor. What Are Visual Arguments? Read Visual Arguments. Use Humor in Your Argument. When Is Humor Appropriate? 12. Develop and Edit Argument Structure and Style. Consider Your Argument's Claim. Introduce Your Opposition. Create Strong Introductions. Write Memorable Conclusions. Edit and Organize Your Argument's Support. Supply a Strong Title. Part IV: AN ANTHOLOGY OF ARGUMENTS. [FORMATTING OK FOR THIS SECTION?] Intersections: Contemporary Issues and Arguments. SCHOOL/ACADEMIC COMMUNITY. Karoun Demirjian, "What is the Price of Plagiarism?" Sad Gaad, I'll Have Large Fries, a Hamburger, a Diet Coke, and an MBA. Hold the Pickles. Donald Gratz, The Problem with Performance Pay. Douglass Reeves, Remaking the Grade, From A to D. Tom Regan, The Kindle's Assault on Academia: Amazon Wants to Corner the Textbook Market. But Don't Think It's Gonna Be Easy. Michael J Seiden, For-Profit Colleges Deserve Some Respect. Eric Strand, Let's Sue. Jeffrey Williams, Are Students the New Indentured Servants? WORKPLACE COMMUNITY. Ann Berkeley, Women Bullying Each Other at Work: Corporate Structure Encourages Women to Bully. Lindsay Edelstein, Employers Are Monitoring Social Networking Sites. Jan Edwards and Molly Morgan, Abolish Corporate Personhood. (Thinking Politically). James K Glassman, A Left-Wing Agenda Drives the Movement for Corporate Social Responsibility. Ken MacQueen with Martin Patriquin and John Intini, Dealing with the Stressed: Workplace Stress Costs the Economy More Than $30 Billion a Year, and Yet Nobody Knows What It Is or How to Deal with It. Rich Meneghello, Commentary: Solutions at Work: When Love Enters the Workplace. Danny Postel, I'm Not Dangerous. Denise Venable, Women Do Not Earn Less than Men Due to Gender Discrimination. FAMILY/HOUSEHOLD COMMUNITY. Mary Eberstadt, Eminem is Right: The Primal Scream of Teenage Music. Sue Ferguson, Leaving the Doors Open. Jewel, Street Life is No Life for Children. Jianguo Liu and Eunice Yu, North America: Ecological Breakup. Richard Louv, Introduction from Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children From Nature-Deficit Disorder. Gregory A Pence, Reproductive Cloning Would Strengthen the American Family. Jim Wallis, Civil Unions Are an Acceptable Alternative to Gay Marriage. NEIGHBORHOOD COMMUNITY. Leo Banks, Under Siege. George Dohrmann, How Dreams Die. Leyla Kokmen, Environmental Harm Disproportionately Impacts the Poor and Minorities. Tim Guest, Crime in Virtual Worlds is Impacting Real Life. Philip Mattera, The Greenwashing Of America. Tracie McMillan, Jicama in the 'hood. Eleanor Novek, You Wouldn't Fit Here. James Q. Wilson, Bowling with Others. SOCIAL/CULTURAL COMMUNITY. CSM Editors. The Potential in Hillary Clinton's Campaign for Women. Randall Kennedy, Many Blacks Continue to Oppose Interracial Relationships. Leadership Conference on Civil Rights Education Fund, Profiling Muslims Hinders the War on Terror. Jane Midgley, Government Spending Should Better Reflect Women's Priorities. George Monbiot, The Triumph of Ignorance: Why Morons Succeed in US Politics. Deborah Tannen, How to Turn Debate into Dialogue: Why It's so Important to End Americans' War of Words and Start Listening to One Another. Valerie White, A Humanist Looks at Polyamory. Jeff Yang, Killer reflection. CONSUMER COMMUNITY. Judith Simmer Brown, A Buddhist Perspective on Consumerism. David Ebel, Telemarketers Should Be Censored. Ray Fisman, It's Like eBay Meets Match.com: Does Peer-to-Peer Lending Work? Dinyar Godrej, Advertising Links Identity with Consumerism. Kimberly Palmer, The End of Credit Card Consumerism. Michele Simon, Even the "Healthy" Choices at Fast-Food Restaurants Are Unhealthy. Peter Singer, Factory Farming Ignores the Suffering of Animals. Dali L. Yang, Outsourcing Compromises the Safety and Quality of Products. CONCERNED CITIZEN COMMUNITY. Harry Binswanger, U. S. Should Adopt Open Immigration. James L. Dickerson, Climate Change Could Cause Disease Resurgence. Tom Engelhardt, Is America Hooked on War? Amy Goodman, Jailing Kids for Cash. David Kelley, Private Charity Should Replace Welfare. Paul Roberts, A Transition to Renewable Energy Sources Is Not Feasible. Matthew Rothschild, Nationalize the Banks. Mike Slater, New Barriers to Voting: Eroding the Right to Vote. CLASSIC AMERICAN ARGUMENTS. Susan B. Anthony, Women's Rights to the Suffrage. Mary Antin, Have We Any Right to Regulate Immigration? Alexander Hamilton, The Federalist No. 6. Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence. Judith Sargent Murray, Equality Among the Sexes. H. L. Mencken, The Penalty of Death. Leo Szilard, A Petition to the President of the United States. Sojourner Truth, Ain't I a Woman? Booker T. Washington, Atlanta Compromise Address. STUDENT-AUTHORED ARGUMENTS. Linda Gonzalez, Driving to a Reasonable Solution. Blaine Schmidt, Red Light Cameras - Pursuing Profit Without Process Or Purpose. Ben Szany, Vouching for Our School System?