This monograph and translation from the Russian describes in detail and comments on the fundamentals of metrology. The basic concepts of metrology, the principles of the International System of Units SI, the theory of measurement uncertainty, the new methodology of estimation of measurement accuracy on the basis of the uncertainty concept, as well as the methods for processing measurement results and estimating their uncertainty are discussed from the modern position. It is shown that the uncertainty concept is compatible with the classical theory of accuracy. The theory of random uncertainties is supplemented with their most general description on the basis of generalized normal distribution; the instrumental systematic errors are presented in connection with the methodology of normalization of the metrological characteristics of measuring instruments.
The information about modern systems of traceability is given. All discussed theoretical principles and calculation methods are illustrated with examples.
|Publisher:||Springer New York|
|Product dimensions:||6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.02(d)|
Table of ContentsPreface.- From the Author.- 1. Basic Concepts of Metrology.- 1.1. Property and Quantity.- 1.2. The Size and Value of the Quantity. The Unit of the Quantity. The Scale of the Quantity.- 1.3. Measurement.- 1.4. Method and Procedure of Measurement.- 1.5. Measuring Equipment.- 1.5.1. Measuring Transducers.- 1.5.2. Measures.- 1.5.3. Measuring Instruments.- 1.5.4. Measuring Setups and Measuring Systems.- 2. Measurement Errors.- 2.1. Classification of Measurement Errors.- 2.2. Laws of Random Measurement Error Distribution.- 2.2.1. Some Information from the Theory of Probability.- 2.2.2. Normal Distribution Law.- 2.2.3. Generalized Normal Distribution Law.- 2.2.4. Basic Static Distributions Applied in Processing Measurement Results.- 2.3. Systematic Measurement Errors.- 2.3.1. Systematic Errors Due to the Properties of Measuring Equipment and the Measurement Conditions Deviating from the Normal Conditions.- 2.3.2. Normalized Metrological Characteristics of Measuring Equipment.- 2.3.3. Measurement Method Errors.- 2.3.4. Systematic Errors Due to an Operator’s Inaccurate Performance.- 2.3.5. Elimination of Systematic Errors.- 3. Measurement Uncertainty.- 3.1. Error and Uncertainty.- 3.2. Classification of Measurement Uncertainties.- 3.3. Procedure for Estimation of the Uncertainty of the Measurement Result.- 4. Methods for Estimation of Measurement Results and Their Uncertainties.- 4.1. Elimination of Overshoots from the Measurement Series.- 4.2. Check of the Hypothesis about the Normal Distribution of Experimental Data.- 4.3. Direct Multiple Measurements Subject to Normal Distribution.- 4.4. Direct Multiple Measurements Subject to Generalized Normal Distribution.- 4.5. Indirect Measurements.- 4.5.1. Statistical Manipulation with the Linear Dependence of Measurement Result on Input Quantities.- 4.5.2. Method of Linearization of Non-Linear Dependence.- 4.5.3. Reduction Method.- 4.6. Joint and Aggregate Measurements.- 5. International System of Units SI.- 5.1. Systems of Units, Principles of Their Formation.- 5. 2. Base Units SI.- 5.3. Derived Units SI. Dimension of Quantities and Units. Multiple and Sub-multiple Units.- 5.4. Quantities and Units of Physical-Chemical Measurements.- 6. Measurement Assurance.- 6.1. Uniformity and Traceability of Measurement.- 6.2. Measurement Assurance.- 6.3. Standards of Units.- 6.4. Verification and Calibration of Measuring Equipment.- 6.5. Increase of the Unit Size during its Transfer to a Measuring Instrument under Calibration or Verification.- 6.6. Measurement Chains.- 6.7. Organization Basis of Measurement Assurance.- 6.8. Measurement Assurance in the World on the Basis of the Arrangement between the Directors of the National Metrology Institutes.- 7. Verification and Calibration Intervals.- 7.1. Basic Concepts.- 7.2. Basic Concepts of the Theory of Metrological Reliability.- 7.2.1. Mathematical Model of МХ (Metrological Characteristic?) Drift.- 7.2.2. Basic Instability Equation and its Solution.- 7.2.3. Instability Distribution Laws.- 7.3. Criteria for Setting the Verification and Calibration Intervals.- 7.3.1. Probability of Metrological Serviceability.- 7.3.2. Metrological Serviceability Coefficient.- 7.3.3. Probability of Operation without Metrological Failures (Probability of No-Failure).- 7.4. Substantiation of Primary Verification and Calibration Intervals.- 7.5. Correction of Verification and Calibration Intervals in the Process of Operation of Measuring Equipment.- 7.5.1. Correction of Verification Intervals of a Group of Measuring Equipment with recording the Values of Error of Each Specimen during its Verification.- 7.5.2. Correction of Verification Intervals of a Group of Measuring Equipment with Recording the Alternative Sign (Whether the Measuring Device is Serviceable or Not) and the Error Character of the Measuring Device, Which is Rejected as Defective, during its Verification.- 7.5.3. Correction of Verification Intervals of a Group of Measuring Equipment with Only Recording the Alternative Sign of Serviceability of the Measuring Device.- 8. Assurance of Measurement Accuracy in Correspondence with the ISO 5725 Standards.- 8.1. Basic Concepts.- 8.2. Basic Method for Estimation of the Measurement Method Precision.- 8.3. Basic Method for Estimation of the Measurement Method Correctness.- 8.3.1. Estimation of the Systematic Error of the Measurement Method.- 8.3.2. Estimation of the Systematic Error of the Laboratory.- 8.4. Application of the Repeatability and Reproducibility Limits.- 8.5. Method for Testing the Acceptability of Measurement Results.- 8.6. Application of the Repeatability Indices during Approval of Measurement Procedures.- References.- Index.