In the opinion of the author, John Beiswenger, Shankar Vedantam's book, The Hidden Brain, suggests you are nothing more than a puppet with your hidden brain pulling the strings. Shankar Vedantam says, "No matter how much you learn about the hidden brain, you will never feel it manipulating you." Beiswenger counters: "We are not manipulated by any hidden brain nor by our spiritual brain, for that matter. We are not manipulated at all. Our actions are those controlled by our physical brain, supported by the memory in our soul. In other words, we are responsible for our actions, contrary to the myth promoted in The Hidden Brain."