The Relativistic Deduction: Epistemological Implications of the Theory of Relativity With a Review by Albert Einstein and an Introduction by Mili? ?apek

The Relativistic Deduction: Epistemological Implications of the Theory of Relativity With a Review by Albert Einstein and an Introduction by Mili? ?apek

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1985)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789401088053
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Publication date: 10/13/2011
Series: Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science , #83
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1985
Pages: 290
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

The Relativistic Deduction.- Preface.- 1. The Quantitative.- 1. The Role of Mathematics.- 2. How Positivism Explains this Role.- 3. The Inadequacy of this Explanation.- 4. The Importance of Quality.- 5. Quality and Action.- 6. Quantity and the Nature of Things.- 7. Change and its Explanation.- 8. The Artistic Point of View.- 9. Conflicts and their Resolution.- 10. The Flux of the Quantitative.- 11. The Intelligibility of Reality.- 12. Auguste Comte’s Protest.- 2. Reality.- 13. The Preservation of Reality.- 14. Sensation and the Object.- 15. The Search for Consistency.- 16. The Objects Created by Science.- 17. The Attitude of the Philologist.- 18. Reality and Appearance.- 19. The Positivistic Point of View.- 20. Transcendence.- 21. The True Place of Theory in Science.- 22. Planck on the Retreat from ’Anthropomorphism’.- 3. The Spatial.- 23. The Agreement between Mathematics and Reality.- 24. The Quantitative in Space.- 25. Deduction According to Descartes and According to Hegel.- 26. The Corporeity of Geometrical Figures.- 27. Explanation by Geometrical Figures.- 28. Geometry and Algebra.- 29. Explanation by Motion.- 4. The Principle of Inertia.- 30. Absolute Motion.- 31. The Vis Impressa.- 32. Motion as a State.- 33. Velocity as Substance.- 34. The Action of Space.- 35. The Copernicans.- 36. Newton and Kant.- 37. Space and Inertial Motion.- 38. Aristotle’s Explanation and Ours.- 39. Two Possible Kinds of Explanation.- 40. Geometry and Rationality.- 41. Impact.- 5. Relativism, a Theory About Reality.- 42. The Evolution of the Notion of Space.- 43. Theories Based on Principles and Theories Based on Representations.- 44. Relativism and Phenomenalism.- 45. Einstein’s Opinion.- 46. Eddington.- 47. Langevin, Borel, Jean Becquerel, Weyl and Marais.- 48. Reality as Independent of the Observer.- 49. From Common Sense to Relativism.- 50. Positivistic Declarations.- 51. The Metaphysics of Laws.- 52. The Idealistic Interpretation.- 53. The Name of the Theory.- 54. The Reality of Time and Space.- 55. The Vehemence of the Controversy.- 56. The Popularizations.- 57. The Level of Knowledge.- 58. Mathematics and Philosophy.- 59. The General Public and the Elite.- 6. Gravitation.- 60. The Mystery of Newtonian Gravitation.- 61. The Relativistic Solution.- 62. The Spatial Nature of the Theory.- 63. The Analogy with Previous Theories.- 64. Projectile Motion and Gravitation.- 7. Time.- 65. Minkowski’s View.- 66. The Views of Langevin and Wien.- 67. The Views of Sommerfeld, Cassirer and Weyl.- 68. The Views of Einstein, Eddington and Cunningham.- 69. The Spatialization of Time in Relativism.- 70. The Irreversibility of Phenomena.- 71. The Source of the Relativistic Exaggerations.- 72. Identity in Time.- 73. The Spatialization of Time in the Past.- 74. The Dissymmetry between Time and Space.- 75. Carnot’s Principle and Plausibility.- 8. Electrical Phenomena.- 76. The Experimental Bases of Relativism.- 77. Relativism and Optics.- 78. Einstein’s Theory does not Explain Electricity.- 79. The Prime Phenomenon.- 80. Explanation of Electrical Phenomena.- 81. Purely Geometrical Reality.- 9. Biological Phenomena.- 82. Mental Phenomena.- 83. Vital Phenomena.- 84. The Vital and Hyperspace.- 10. Universal Explanation.- 85. Relativism as a System of Universal Deduction.- 86. Relativistic Geometry is Still Deductive.- 87. Relativism and Descartes’s System.- 88. Relativism and Hegel’s System.- 89. The Limits of the Three Systems.- 90. The Universality of the Relativistic Deduction.- 91. The Return to Reality.- 92. The Mind Rediscovered in Nature.- 11. Matter.- 93. Matter Resorbed into Space.- 94. The Relativist’s Reservations.- 95. The ‘Approved Methods’ of Physics.- 96. Relativistic Space and the Hegelian Categories.- 97. The Advantage of Spatial Deduction.- 98. The Given in the Relativistic Deduction.- 99. All Reasoning Begins with Perception.- 100. The Tendency toward Idealism and Realistic Convictions.- 12. Essence and Existence.- 101. The Nature of this Distinction.- 102. Its Role in Medieval Thought.- 103. Its Role in Modern Philosophy.- 104. Its Role in Relativism.- 13. Diversity.- 105. The Simplification Brought About by Relativism.- 106. Where has Physical Reality Gone?.- 107. Irreversibility.- 108. Relativism Makes the Situation Worse.- 109. Discontinuity.- 110. Absolute Measures.- 111. The Concept of the Atom.- 112. Quanta.- 113. Relativism and Quanta.- 114. The Physical Resists Reduction.- 14. Interpretation.- 115. Abstract Number and Concrete Magnitude.- 116. The Relativist’s Illusion.- 117. Even the Relativistic Concept of the Spatial is the Result of Interpretation.- 15. The Relativistic Imagination.- 118. The Existence of a Limit.- 119. The Imaginary Quantity in Algebra.- 120. Spatial Image and Algebraic Formula.- 121. Poincaré’s Prediction.- 122. The Indeterminateness of the Limit.- 16. The Appeal of Relativism.- 123. The Initiates.- 124. The Attraction of Hegelianism.- 125. Comparison with Relativism.- 126. The Conviction Created by the Deduction.- 127. The Physicists and Bohr’s Theory.- 128. The Positivistic Explanation of this Attitude.- 129. The Inadequacy of this Explanation.- 130. The Appeal of Rational Explanation.- 131. Its Appeal for the Relativist and for the Hegelian.- 132. The Advantage of Scientific Concepts.- 133. The Success of Relativism.- 17. The Deducible and the Real.- 134. Eddington’s and Weyl’s Doubts.- 135. The Contradiction.- 136. Is Relativistic Reality Reverting to the Self?.- 137. The Subjectivistic Affirmations are Beside the Point.- 138. Where Does this State of Mind Come From?.- 139. Weyl and Schelling.- 140. The Opposition Between Thought and Reality.- 141. The Characters of the Novelist and the Playwright.- 142. The Historicity of Jesus.- 143. This has Nothing to do with the Unpredictability of the Vital.- 144. There are Degrees of Rationality.- 145. The Conflict between Realism and Acosmism.- 146. Nonrational Laws.- 147. Reality does not Disappear.- 18. The System.- 148. The Relativists and Kant.- 149. Kantian Space and Time as Forms of the Mind.- 150. Relativistic Time and Space as Separate from the Self.- 151. The ‘Copernican’ About-Face in Kant and in Relativism.- 152. Temporal and Spatial Intuition.- 153. The Superposition of the Two Points of View.- 154. Mathematics in Relativism and in Kant.- 155. Relativism is a Scientific Mathematicism.- 156. It is not Empirical.- 157. Philosophical Panmathematicism.- 158. Geometrism and Alge brism.- 159. Geometrism as an Intermediate Step.- 160. Plato.- 19. Relativism and Mechanism.- 161. Are the Two Theories Opposed?.- 162. Planck’s and Wien’s Positions.- 163. The Definition of Mechanism.- 164. Mass and Matter.- 165. The Electromagnetic Theory.- 166. The Smoothness of the Transition and the Positivistic Explanation.- 167. The Role of Experiment.- 168. Mechanical and Electrical Inertia.- 169. The Enigma of how Mass Acts.- 170. The Familiar.- 171. Touch and Action at a Distance.- 172. Touch-As-Sensation and Touch-As-External-Phenomenon.- 173. The Feeling of Volition.- 174. The Enigma of the Act of Throwing and its Explanation.- 175. Mass as Substance.- 176. The Link with Touch-As-Sensation.- 177. It is Broken in Electrical Theory.- 178. Electrical Theory and Anthropomorphism.- 179. Explanation by Substance.- 180. Mechanism as Explanation by Motion.- 181. How Relativism Resembles Mechanism.- 182. Why they were Thought to be Opposed.- 183.Acosmism and the Positivistic Illusion.- 20. Rational Explanation and the Progress Of Mathematics.- 184. The Transformation of the Notion of Space.- 185. Mathematics and the Origin of the Principle of Inertia.- 186. Reason, the Continuous and the Discontinuous.- 187. Mathematics and the Origin of Relativism.- 188. The Role of Analysis.- 21. Progress in Making Things Rational.- 189. Transitive Action.- 190. Becoming.- 191. Things Cannot be Made Completely Rational.- 192. Gravitation and Action by Contact.- 193. Gravitation is Transmitted Without any Intermediary.- 22. The Aprioristic Tendency and Experience.- 194. Was Descartes the Victim of an Illusion?.- 195. The Distinction between Science and Philosophy.- 196. Any General Scientific Theory Appears to be Philosophical.- 197. The Two Tendencies of Science.- 198. Why Chemistry Constitutes a Quasi-Independent Science.- 199. Qualitatively Diverse Substances.- 200. The Element as a Bearer of Qualities.- 201. The Element in Anti-Phlogiston Theory.- 202. Lavoisier, Prout and Mendeleev.- 203. The Triumph of the Oneness of Matter.- 204. The Two Tendencies within Chemistry.- 205. The Analogy with the Evolution of Physics.- 206. Descartes Neglects the Specificity of Phenomena.- 207. Experience Imposes this Specificity.- 208. The Role of Newtonian Gravitation.- 209. From Descartes to Einstein.- 210. Evolution in Other Areas of Physics.- 211. The Role of Experimental Observations.- 212. The General Concepts Preexisted.- 213. The Agreement between Reason and Nature.- 214. The Misunderstanding on the Part of Positivism.- 215. The Utility of the History of Science.- 216. The a priori Factor in the Creation of Relativity Theory.- 217. The Aprioristic Tendency and its Concrete Realization in Science.- 218. The Tendency as Creator of Illusions: Transmutation.- 219. The Realization of the Idea for Plato and Hegel.- 220. The Disappearance of the Idea.- 23. The Evolution of Reason.- 221. The Evolution of Reason for Hegel.- 222. Its Evolution in Relativism.- 223. Duhem’s Objections.- 224. Science does not Return to Common Sense.- 225. Is Reason Immutable?.- 226. The Form of Reasoning.- 227. Logic Proceeds A Posteriori.- 228. The Process of Identification.- 229. The Impossibility of A Priori Prediction.- 230. Are the Concepts of Time and Space Part of Reason?.- 231. Up and Down.- 232. Properties of the Vertical and Geometrical Properties.- 233. The Evolution of Reason Brought About by Inertia.- 234. Physical Space and Geometrical Space.- 235. Proclus and Euclid.- 236. Reason and Sensation.- 237. The Conviction Created by Success.- 238. Has there been Analogous Evolution Outside the Sciences?.- 239. The Objective and the Subjective.- 240. The Give and Take between Reality and Sensation.- 241. It Takes Place in the Spatial.- 242. The Compliance of Reason Remains Incomplete.- 243. Why Reason Consents to the Required Sacrifice.- 244. Reason Abandons Elements that were Part of It.- 245. The Content of a Concept and its Extension.- 246. The Modification of Reason for Hegel and for the Relativists.- 247. Our Attempted Reform.- 248. The Utility of a Comparison with Hegel.- 24. Dogmatism and Skepticism in Science.- 294. The Perplexity of the Layman.- 250. Science is both Dogmatic and Skeptical.- 251. The Extravagance of the Relativistic Ideas.- 252. The Conflicts between Science and Theology.- 253. Science as a Substitute for Religion, According to Comte.- 254. The Importance of Disinterested Research.- 255. The Stability Postulated by Comte.- 256. His Error is the Same as Kant’s.- 257. The Intervention of the Secular Arm.- 258. This Teaching Remains Without Echo.- 259. What can be Concluded From This?.- 260. Theological Reasoning.- 261. Its Progress, According to Saint Vincent.- 262. The Limit Imposed on this Progress.- 263. No Immutable Dogma in Science.- 264. The True Significance of Fresnel’s Demonstration.- 265. The Significance of the Copernican Demonstration.- 266. The Significance of the Relativistic Demonstration.- 267. The Name of the Theory Once Again.- 268. New Facts and New Theories.- 269. The Convenient and the As If.- 270. Negative Dogmatism.- 271. The Scientist and the a priori Component of Science.- 272. Mach’s Attitude.- 273. Anti-Einstein and Pro-Phlogiston Theorists.- 274. The Attitude of the Layman.- 275. Useless Excesses.- 25. The Outlook for the Future.- 276. Philosophical Reasons for a Return to Ordinary Time and Space.- 277. Is the Gain Proportional to the Sacrifice?.- 278. Can an Element that has been Abandoned by Reason be Reinstated?.- 279. As Science Progresses it Includes More of the Irrational in its Explanations.- 280. The Methods of Philosophy and of Science.- 281. The Explanations of Lucretius and Descartes and of the Moderns.- 282. The Complexity of Spatial Intuition.- 283. The Scientific Reasons for a Return.- 284. The Return Nevertheless Seems Unlikely.- 285. Will other Geometrical Axioms be Abandoned?.- 286. Will Spatial Continuity be Abandoned?.- 287. The Constant Progress of Mathematical Rationalization.- 288. Can this Past be Projected into the Future?.- 289. The True Nature of Reality.- 290. Extramathematical Deduction.- 291. Political Considerations.- 292. The Role of the Epistemologist.- Appendix 1. Review by Albert Einstein.- Appendix 2. Einstein—Meyerson Exchange.- Name Index.

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