The Respiratory Burst and Its Physiological Significance

The Respiratory Burst and Its Physiological Significance

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1988)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781468454987
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 03/04/2012
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1988
Pages: 500
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.04(d)

Table of Contents

1. The Respiratory Burst: An Overview.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Biochemical Activities Associated with the Respiratory Burst.- 2.1. Origin of Electrons for the Respiratory Burst Oxidase.- 2.2. Oxygen Consumption.- 2.3. O2- Generation.- 2.4. Generation of H2O2.- 2.5. Myeloperoxidase-Mediated Reactions.- 2.6. Hydroxy 1 Radicals.- 2.7. Chemiluminescence.- 2.8. Formation of Chloramines.- 2.9. Proton Transport during the Respiratory Burst.- 2.10. Depolarization.- 3. The NADPH Oxidase.- 3.1. The NADPH Oxidase as an Electron-Transport Chain.- 3.2. Subcellular Localization of the NADPH Oxidase and Its Components...- 3.3. Activation of the NADPH Oxidase.- 4. Kinetics of the Respiratory Burst.- 5. Development of the Ability to Generate a Respiratory Burst.- 6. The Respiratory Burst in Nonphagocytic Cells.- References.- 2. The Respiratory Burst of Phagocytes.- 1. Features of the Respiratory Burst of Phagocytes.- 2. Enzymatic Basis of the Respiratory Burst.- 2.1. Major Properties of NADPH Oxidase, the O2- Generating System of Phagocytes.- 2.2. Activity of the NADPH Oxidase in Relationship to the Respiratory Burst of Intact Phagocytes.- 3. Nature of NADPH Oxidase.- 3.1. An O2- Forming Electron-Transfer Chain.- 3.2. Molecular Structure of NADPH Oxidase.- 4. Mechanisms of Activation of the Respiratory Burst.- 5. Biological Significance of the Respiratory Burst of Phagocytes.- References.- 3. The Respiratory Burst and the NADPH Oxidase of Phagocytic Leukocytes.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Intracellular Killing of Microorganisms.- 2.1. Production of Reduced Oxygen Species.- 2.2. Fusion of Granules with the Developing Phagosome.- 3. Oxidase Preparations.- 3.1. Properties of Particulate and Detergent-Treated Particulate.- Preparations.- 3.2. Properties of Solubilized Oxidase Preparations.- 4. The NADPH Oxidase System.- 4.1. Cytochrome b55B.- 4.2. A Flavoprotein.- 4.3. Ubiquinone-50.- 5. Conclusions.- References.- 4. The Respiratory Burst and Cellular Ion Homeostasis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Ion Distribution in the Resting Neutrophil.- 2.1. Calcium.- 2.2. Hydrogen.- 2.3. Sodium, Potassium, and the Membrane Potential.- 3. Ionic Events during Activation of the Respiratory Burst.- 3.1. Calcium.- 3.2. Hydrogen.- 3.3. Sodium, Potassium, and the Membrane Potential.- 3.4. Other Ion Systems.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- 5. An Expanded View of the Phagocytic Respiratory Burst: Bacterial Competition for Oxygen and Its Stimulation by Host Factor(s).- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Microbial Strategies to Resist Oxygen-Dependent Killing.- 2. Bacterial Competition for Oxygen.- 2.1. Limitations of Interpretation.- 3. Characterization and Purification of Serum Factor(s) That Enhance Bacterial Competition for Oxygen.- 4. Interaction with Myeloid Cells Increases Bacterial Oxygen Consumption.- 5. Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 6. The Respiratory Burst and Endothelial Cells.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Effect of Activated Neutrophils on Endothelial Cells.- 2.1. In Vitro Studies.- 2.2. Isolated Perfused Lung.- 2.3. In Vivo Studies.- 3. Mechanism(s) of Endothelial Damage by Neutrophil Activation.- 3.1. Role of the Respiratory Burst.- 3.2. Role of Neutrophil Proteases.- 3.3. Cooperation between ROI-Dependent and Protease-Dependent Mechanisms.- 4. Protective Mechanisms of Endothelial Cells against the Neutrophil Respiratory Burst.- 4.1. Inhibition of the Neutrophil Respiratory Burst by Endothelial Cells.- 4.2. Endothelial Cell Mechanisms for Of and H202 Degradation.- 5. Interactions of Neutrophils with Endothelium.- 5.1. Physiological Margination.- 5.2. Neutrophil-Endothelium Interaction during Diapedesis.- 5.3. Interaction of Neutrophils with Altered Endothelial Cells.- 5.4. Intravascular Activation of Neutrophils.- 5.5. Extravascular Activation of Neutrophils.- 6. Relationships to Human Pathology.- References.- 7. The Respiratory Burst of Eosinophils.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Studies with Eosinophils from Eosinophilic Subjects.- 3. Eosinophils from Normal Subjects versus Eosinophils from Eosinophilic Subjects.- 4. Features of the Respiratory Burst of Eosinophils.- 4.1. Induction of the Burst.- 4.2. Products of the Respiratory Burst.- 4.3. Enzymatic Basis.- 4.4. Enzymes Indirectly Related to the Respiratory Burst.- 5. Functions of the Respiratory Burst in Eosinophils.- 5.1. Microbicidal and Fungicidal Capacity.- 5.2. Helminthotoxic Activity.- 5.3. Regulation of the Activity of the Inflammatory Mediators.- 5.4. Cytotoxicity.- 6. Regulation of EPO Concentration in the Extracellular Medium.- 7. Conclusions.- References.- 8. The Respiratory Burst and Lymphocyte Function.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Characteristics of the Metabolic Burst.- 2.1. Nature of the Metabolic Burst in Phagocytic Cells.- 2.2. Generation of ROS by Lymphocytes.- 2.3. Stimuli That Induce a Metabolic Burst in Phagocytic Cells.- 3. Evidence Indicating That the ROS Produced by Phagocytic Cells May Alter the Functional Capacity of Human Lymphocytes.- 3.1. Effect of Hyperoxia on the Proliferation of Human Lymphocyte Cultures.- 3.2. Role of ROS in Radiation Damage to Lymphocytes.- 3.3. Effect of Chemical Oxidation on Lymphocyte Function.- 3.4. Effects of the ROS Generated by Enzyme Systems on the Functional Capacity of Lymphocytes in Vitro.- 3.5. Possible Differences in the Sensitivity of T and B Cells to Oxidant Damage.- 4. Evidence That the Production of ROS by Phagocytic Cells Can Alter Lymphocyte Function.- 4.1. Evidence That the Release of ROS by Phagocytic Cells May Impair the NK Activity of Lymphocytes.- 4.2. Evidence That ROS Released by Phagocytic Cells Can Alter Lymphocyte Proliferation.- 4.3. Role of the Lymphocyte in the Metabolic Burst.- 5. Summary.- References.- 9. Modulation of the Respiratory Burst by Naturally Occurring Substances.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Control of Neutrophil Respiratory Burst by Defined Biological Substances.- 3. Antiproteinases.- 4. Dialyzable Substances in Exudates of Sponge-Induced Inflammation: Polyamines.- 5. Substance P.- 6. Pneumolysin.- 7. Streptolysin O.- 8. Acid Phosphatase.- 9. Calmodulin-Binding Peptides.- 10. Platelet Activating Factor.- 11. Fructose 1,6 Diphosphate.- 12. Adenosine.- 13. Modulation of Respiratory Burst by Viral Products.- 14. Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 10. Oxidants Formed by the Respiratory Burst: Their Physiological Role and Their Involvement in the Oxidative Metabolism and Activation of Drugs, Carcinogens, and Xenobiotics.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Extracellular versus Intracellular Oxidation and Halogenation.- 3. Trapping Active Chlorine Generated by the Respiratory Burst.- 4. Physiological Role of Halogenation and Oxidation.- 4.1. Bactericidal Activity and Cell Death.- 4.2. Oxidative Inactivation of Microbial Toxins.- 4.3. Oxidative Inactivation of Methionine-Dependent Inflammation Mediators.- 4.4. Oxidative Activation of Proteases.- 4.5. Inactivation of Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes.- 4.6. Thyroxine Turnover.- 4.7. Estradiol Inactivation.- 5. Oxidative Metabolism of Drugs.- 5.1. Antithyroid Drugs.- 5.2. Oxygenation of Drugs.- 5.3. Electronic Excitation.- 6. Oxidative Activation of Carcinogens and Xenobiotics.- 6.1. Arylamines and Phenol.- 6.2. Oxygen Radicals and Singlet Oxygen.- References.- 11. Drug-Induced Agranulocytosis and Other Effects Mediated by Peroxidases during the Respiratory Burst.- 1. Metabolism of Drugs to Reactive Intermediates.- 2. Pharmacological Effects of Dapsone and Other Arylamines Mediated by Myeloperoxidase.- 3. Pharmacological and Toxic Effects of Other Drugs Metabolized by Myeloperoxidase.- 4. Possible Mechanisms of Drug-Induced Agranulocytosis.- 4.1. Direct Mechanism.- 4.2. Immune-Mediated Mechanism.- 5. Pharmacological Effects Mediated by Thyroid Peroxidase.- 6. Idiosyncratic Reactions Possibly Due to Metabolism by Monocytes.- 7. Summary.- References.- 12. The Respiratory Burst and the Metabolism of Drugs.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Characteristics of the Metabolic Burst.- 3. Relevant Studies Concerning the Metabolism of Drugs in Model Systems.- 3.1. Horseradish Peroxidase-Hydrogen Peroxide Enzyme System.- 3.2. Catalase-H202 Enzyme System.- 3.3. Arachidonic Acid Metabolism.- 3.4. The Glutathione Peroxidase Pathway.- 3.5. Microsomal Enzyme System.- 3.6. Xanthine-Xanthine Oxidase Enzyme System.- 3.7. Drug Studies in the Model System—Pulse Radiolysis.- 4. Evidence That the ROS Generated by the Myeloperoxidase System in PMN Have the Capacity to Metabolize Drugs.- 5. Evidence That Activated Granulocytes Can Oxidize and Hydroxylate Drugs.- 6. Evidence for the Metabolism of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs by the Hydroxyl Radical Produced by Granulocytes.- 7. Metabolism of Drugs by Mononuclear Cells.- 8. Summary.- References.- 13. The Respiratory Burst and Carcinogenesis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Respiratory Burst in Phagocytes.- 3. Inflammation and Cancer.- 4. Multistep Carcinogenesis.- 4.1. Initiation.- 4.2. Promotion.- 5. Phagocyte-Generated Oxidants in Carcinogenesis.- 5.1. Oxygen-Derived Free Radicals Cause DNA Strand Breaks.- 5.2. Oxygen-Derived Free Radicals Are Mutagenic.- 5.3. Oxygen-Derived Free Radicals Cause Malignant Transformation.- 5.4. Oxygen-Derived Free Radicals Cause Nucleoside Modification.- 5.5. Oxygen-Derived Free Radicals Activate Xenobiotic Procarcinogens to Genotoxic Intermediates.- 5.6. Oxygen-Derived Free Radicals Cause Chromosomal Abnormalities.- 5.7. Oxygen-Derived Free Radicals Act as Tumor Promotors.- 6. Summary.- References.- 14. The Respiratory Burst and Mechanisms of Oxygen Radical-Mediated Tissue Injury.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Oxygen-Derived Metabolite Production by Phagocytic Cells.- 3. Host Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms.- 4. In Vitro Evidence for Phagocyte-Derived Oxygen Metabolite-Mediated Cell and Tissue Injury.- 5. In Vivo Models of Oxygen Metabolite-Mediated Tissue Injury.- 6. Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 15. The Respiratory Burst of Neutrophilic Granulocytes and Its Influence on Infected Tissues: Indirect Consequences.- 1. Reactive Species Produced Due to the Respiratory Burst.- 1.1. Triggering the Respiratory Burst.- 1.2. Reaction Pathways Originating from the Increased Oxygen Uptake by Neutrophils.- 1.3. Reactivity of the MPO-Mediated Products of the Respiratory Burst.- 2. Effects of Respiratory Burst Products on Metabolic Reactions in the Infected Tissues.- 2.1. Proteolysis.- 2.2. Changes in Nucleic Acid Metabolism.- 2.3. Degradation of Proteoglycans.- 2.4. Tentative Mechanisms of Cytotoxic and Cytolytic Activities of Neutrophils toward Target Cells.- 3. Modulation of Respiratory Burst by Its Products.- 3.1. The MPO-H2O2-C1- System as a Modulator of the Respiratory Burst.- 3.2. Influence of Cyanide on Respiratory Burst and Other Neutrophil Activities.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- 16. The Respiratory Burst and Psoriasis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Importance of Phagocytes in Psoriasis.- 2.1. Vulgar Psoriasis.- 2.2. Pustular Psoriasis.- 3. Respiratory Burst-Related Peripheral Blood Phagocyte Function in Psoriasis.- 3.1. Chemiluminescent Response of PMN in Psoriasis.- 3.2. Chemiluminescent Response of Mononuclear Leukocytes in Psoriasis.- 3.3. Effects of Psoriatic Serum on the Respiratory Burst.- 3.4. Activity of G6PD Activity in Mononuclear Leukocytes in Psoriasis.- 4. Influence of Epidermal Cell-Culture Supernatants of Psoriatic Skin on the Respiratory Burst of Phagocytes.- 5. Effects of Psoriatic Scales on the Respiratory Burst.- 5.1. Aqueous Scale Extracts.- 5.2. Organic Extracts.- 6. Effects of PMN on Keratinocytes.- 6.1. Effect of Extracts of Scales on PMN-Mediated Cytotoxicity of Keratinocytes.- 7. Role of the Respiratory Burst in Psoriasis.- 8. Summary.- 9. Conclusion.- References.- 17. The Respiratory Burst and Diabetes Mellitus.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Alteration of the Immune System in Diabetes Mellitus.- 3. Case Studies.- 4. Reactive Oxygen Species-Generating System and the Effector Functions of Granulocytes in Diabetes Mellitus.- 5. Conclusion.- References.- 18. The Respiratory Burst of Fertilization.- 1. Introduction and Historical Perspective.- 2. The Respiratory Burst and Related Events at Fertilization.- 2.1. Initiation and Kinetics of the Respiratory Burst.- 2.2. Role of Exocytosis and Intracellular Ca2+ in the Respiratory Burst.- 2.3. Activation of NAD Kinase and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway.- 3. Peroxide Production and Fertilization Envelope Hardening.- 3.1. Assembly and Crosslinking of the Fertilization Envelope.- 3.2. Characteristics of Ovoperoxidase.- 3.3. H202 Production and Chemiluminescence.- 4. Possible Mechanisms of the Respiratory Burst.- 4.1. Lipoxygenase.- 4.2. Oxidase Activity of Ovoperoxidase.- 4.3. Other Oxidases.- 4.4. Parallels between Fertilization and Phagocytosis.- 5. Production of Activated Oxygen and Control of Toxicity.- 6. Conclusion.- References.- 19. The Respiratory Burst and Atherosclerosis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Dual Role of Monocyte-Macrophage System in the Immune Response and in Lipid Metabolism.- 3. Dual Role of EC and SMC in the Immune Response and in Lipid.- Metabolism.- 4. Role of ROS Generation in Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation.- 5. LDL Particles as Triggers of the Respiratory Burst.- 6. Conclusion.- References.- 20. The Respiratory Burst and Aging.- 1. Introduction.- 2. General Concepts.- 2.1. Production of Free Radicals.- 2.2. Free Radical Theory of Aging.- 2.3. The Glutathione Redox Cycle.- 3. The Resting Oxidative Metabolism in the PMNL of the Elderly.- 4. The Respiratory Burst during Various Stimulations.- 4.1. Receptor Stimulation of the Respiratory Burst.- 4.2. Nonspecific Stimulation of the Respiratory Burst.- 4.3. Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species.- Conclusion.- References.- 21. The Respiratory Burst and the Onset of Human Labor, Preterm Labor, and Premature Rupture of the Membranes.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Phagocytosis and the Onset of Human Labor.- 2.1. Experimental Model.- 2.2. Interaction of Particulate Material and Surfactants with Amnion Cells.- 2.3. Release and Function of Amnion Phospholipase A2: Initiation of Labor at Term.- 3. Phagocytosis and Premature Rupture of the Membranes.- 3.1. Etiology of PROM.- 3.2. Role of Peroxidase in PROM.- 3.3. Surfactant and Fetal Membrane Interactions.- 4. Effect of Bacterial Growth in Fetal Membranes.- 4.1. Experimental Model.- 4.2. Nature of Effect.- 5. Summary and Concluding Remarks.- References.- 22. Tuftsin: Biochemical and Biological Aspects.- 1. Introduction.- 2. General Characteristics of Tuftsin.- 3. Phagocytosis.- 4. Motility.- 5. Toxicity of Tuftsin.- 6. Immunogenic Activity.- 7. Antibacterial Effects of Tuftsin.- 8. Antineoplastic Activity in Mice.- 9. Restoration of Disease-Depressed and Age-Depressed Functions by Tuftsin.- 10. Effect of Tuftsin on Cyclic Nucleotide Levels.- 11. Induction of Tumor Necrosis Factor by Tuftsin in Vivo and in Vitro.- 12. Reactive Oxygen Compounds.- 13. Analogues and Their Effects.- 14. Molecular Mimicry between Receptor and Antibody.- 15. Tuftsin Conformation.- 16. Synthesis of Tuftsin.- 17. Methods for Synthesis of Radioactive Tuftsin.- 18. Tuftsin Receptors.- 19. Other Studies.- 20. Tuftsin Deficiencies.- 20.1. Congenital Tuftsin Deficiency.- 20.2. Acquired Tuftsin Deficiency.- 21. Mechanism of Action.- References.

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