The Rise of Modern Yiddish Culture explores the transformation of Yiddish from a low-status vernacular to the medium of a complex modern culture. David Fishman examines the efforts of east European Jews to establish their linguistic distinctiveness as part of their struggle for national survival in the diaspora. Fishman considers the roots of modern Yiddish culture in social and political conditions in Imperial Tsarist and inter-war Poland, and its relationship to Zionism and Bundism. In so doing, Fishman argues that Yiddish culture enveloped all socioeconomic classes, not just the proletarian base, and considers the emergence, at the turn of the century, of a pro-Yiddish intelligentsia and a Yiddishist movement.
As Fishman points out, the rise of Yiddishism was not without controversy. Some believed that the rise of Yiddish represented a shift away from a religious-dominated culture to a completely secular, European one; a Jewish nation held together by language, rather than by land or religious content. Others hoped that Yiddish culture would inherit the moral and national values of the Jewish religious tradition, and that to achieve this result, the Bible and Midrash would need to exist in modern Yiddish translation. Modern Yiddish culture developed in the midst of these opposing concepts.
Fishman follows the rise of the culture to its apex, the founding of the Yiddish Scientific Institute (YIVO) in Vilna in 1925, and concludes with the dramatic story of the individual efforts that preserved the books and papers of YIVO during the destruction and annihilation of World War II and in postwar Soviet Lithuania. The Rise of Modern Yiddish Culture, like those efforts, preserves the cultural heritage of east European Jews with thorough research and fresh insights.
About the Author
David E. Fishman is professor of Jewish history at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America in New York. He is the author of Russia’s First Modern Jews and editor of From Mesopotamia to Modernity: Ten Introductions to Jewish History and Literature.
Table of Contents<p. vii, no folio, p. viii, cont'd or blank> Contents Preface 000 Part I: Tsarist Russia 1. The Rise of Modern Yiddish Culture: An Overview 000 2. The Politics of Yiddish 000 3. Language and Revolution: Hevrat Mefitse Haskalah in 1905 000 4. The Bund's Contribution 000 5. Reinventing Community 000 Part II: Poland between the World Wars 6. New Trends in Interwar Yiddish Culture 000 7. The Judaism of Secular Yiddishists 000 8. Commemoration and Cultural Conflict: The Vilna Gaon's Bicentennary 000 9. Max Weinreich and the Development of YIVO 000 10. Embers Plucked from the Fire: The Rescue of Jewish Cultural Treasures in Vilna 000 Notes 000 Selected Bibliography 000 Index 000
What People are Saying About This
Can a politically powerless, ideologically divided, and geographically diverse people fashion a 'cultural system' out of the language that all of them happen to speak but none of them knows how to spell? Can a traditional society transform itself overnight? Are politics the engine or enemy of a cultural renaissance? Can a culture be rebuilt after most of its speakers have been murdered? The answers to these fundamental questions of the modern Jewish experience are to be found in Fishman's fascinating book. (author of Against the Apocalypse)
At last, a scholar has given us a comprehensive and fresh treatment of east European Yiddishism as a political and social movement. Fishman challenges the stereotype of Yiddishism as a secularist, socialist rebellion against Jewish tradition and deftly places the movement in the larger context of Russian, Polish, and Jewish politics. Written in a spare, accessible style, this book portrays one of the most important movements in modern Jewish history as it ranges from the mid-nineteenth century to the eve of World War Two. (University of Michigan)