The sequel to the bestseller The Fourth Political Theory, expanding further on the fourth political theory. All the political systems of the modern age have been the products of three distinct ideologies: the first, and oldest, is liberal democracy; the second is Marxism; and the third is fascism. The latter two have long since failed and passed out of the pages of history, and the first no longer operates as an ideology, but rather as something taken for granted. The world today finds itself on the brink of a post-political reality — one in which the values of liberalism are so deeply embedded that the average person is not aware that there is an ideology at work around him. As a result, liberalism is threatening to monopolise political discourse and drown the world in a universal sameness, destroying everything that makes the various cultures and peoples unique. According to Alexander Dugin, what is needed to break through this morass is a fourth ideology — one that will sift through the debris of the first three to look for elements that might be useful, but that remains innovative and unique in itself.
About the Author
After the collapse of the USSR opened up new possibilities, Dugin began associating with several of the major figures of the European New Right such as Alain de Benoist, and came to international prominence as a leader of the National Bolshevik Party, which sought to revive the ideals of the political movements of 1920s Russia and Germany which had gone by that name, and which had sought a synthesis of both Left- and Right-wing doctrines. Dugin left the NBP in 1998.
In 2001, Dugin founded the Eurasia Movement, which he has continued to lead up to the present day. In addition to the many books he has authored on political, philosophical and spiritual topics, he currently serves on the staff of Moscow State University. For more than a decade, he has also been an advisor to Vladimir Putin and others in the Kremlin on geopolitical matters, being a vocal advocate of a return of Russian power to the global stage, to act as a counterweight to American domination. Arktos has published his books, 'The Fourth Political Theory', which is an introduction to his political thought, in both English and German, as well as 'Putin vs Putin: Vladimir Putin Viewed from the Right', which is his discussion of the dual political nature of Putin's administration, 'Eurasian Mission: An Introduction to Neo-Eurasianism', and 'Last War of the World-Island: The Geopolitics of Contemporary Russia'.
Table of Contents
Part I. Democracy and Conservatism
1. Democracy: Sacred or Secular?
2. Conservatism as a Project and Episteme
Part II. Empire and the Eurasian Idea
3. The West and its Challenge
4. Carl Schmitt’s Principle of “Empire” and the Fourth Political Theory
5. The Project “Empire”
6. Eurasianism (A Political Poem)
Part III. The Russian Behemoth
7. The Structure of Russia’s Sociogenesis
8. The Russian Leviathan (State Terror)
9. Questioning Modernization
10. Interests and Values After Tskhinvali
Alexander Dugin on Martin Heidegger
The Four Political Theories