For ninety years, from the first European invasion of North America above Mexico in 1521 until 1610, Spanish, French, and English would-be colonists repeatedly mounted incursions into eastern Canada and in the United States from Maine to Florida and across the south from North Carolina to California. By June 7, 1610, less than a thousand Europeans resided permanently in North America above Mexico. Native Americans, at a terrible cost in lives lost to European diseases, had successfully prevented Europeans from invading their land.
The Second Invasion of North America Above Mexico, The First Ninety Years: Indigenous Americans’ Successful Defense Against Europeans, 1521 to 1620, is the first book to focus exclusively on these pre-colonial years and the interactions of Native Americans and Europeans.
Calvin D. Trowbridge, Jr., is the author of two books on the beginning of the United States and Canada, covering the period from 1492 to 1640, and a biography of Marconi, the inventor of long-distance wireless communication. The Second Invasion of North America Above Mexico will benefit all who are interested in American and Canadian history.