This brief rhetoric of argument teaches critical reading, informal reasoning, and writing as reasoned inquiry, and now features a mini-anthology of arguments on civic issues. The Shape of Reason emphasizes the enthymeme as the central basis for the invention and structure of arguments. This approach blends classical insights into rhetorical reasoning with contemporary understandings of the composing process as generative and organic, situated within discourse communities. The book helps to understand argument as inquiry, stressing the responsibility that writers have - to their audience and to their own ideas - in structuring arguments that earn their conclusions and in considering opposing arguments. For anyone interested in argumentative writing.
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Table of Contents
I. WRITING AND THE COLLEGE COMMUNITY.
1. Discourse Communities.
2. This Book and You.
3. Purpose and Design.
4. Earned Conclusions.
5. Questions for Thought, Discussion, and Writing.
Linda Ellerbee, “We Can Kill Exit Polling by Lying Our Heads Off.”
Norman Cousins, “Who Killed Benny Paret?”
Noel Riley, S.M., “Getting a Big Bang Out of Creation Theories.”
II. CRITICAL READING.
7. How We Read.
8. A Case in Point.
P.J. Wingate, “The Philosophy of H.L. Mencken.”
Tom Welshko, “Mencken and the Great `Bathtub Hoax'.”
9. Reading and Belief.
10. Some Considerations for Critical Reading.
11. Implications for Research.
12. Questions for Thought, Discussion, and Writing.
Geoffrey K. Pullum, “The Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax.”
Bamber Gasgoigne, “How Masqueraders Think.”
Francis Bacon, “The Four Idols.”
III. ASKING QUESTIONS, GENERATING IDEAS.
14. An Idea Worth Writing About.
15. What a Thesis Does.
16. Stasis: Kinds of Questions at Issue.
17. An Example.
Interview with Jeremy Rifkin.
Interview with Bernard Davis.
18. The Need for Precision.
19. Finding and Testing a Thesis.
20. Implications for Research.
21. Question for Thought, Discussion, and Writing.
Mark O. Hatfield, “On Defense Spending.”
Margaret Sanger, “The Causes of War.”
Fred L. Smith and Kathy H. Kushner, “Good Fences Make Good Neighborhoods.”
Donella Meadows, “Our Survival Depends on Saving Other Species.”
IV. GIVING REASONS.
23. What a Reason Does.
24. The Enthymeme.
25. Informal Reasoning.
26. Kinds of Appeal.
27. Formal Reasoning: Some Elements of Logic.
28. Enthymemes and Logic.
29. Implications for Research.
30. Questions for Thought, Discussion, and Writing.
Felice N. Schwartz, “Management Women and the New Facts of Life.”
Barbara Ehrenreich and Dierdre English, “Blowing the Whistle on the `Mommy Track'.”
Carol Kleiman, “How to Get 'Em on Track.”
V. DEVELOPING STRUCTURES.
32. The Structural Enthymeme.
33. From Enthymeme to Structure.
From Structure to Essay: An Analysis.
34. Implications for Research.
35. Questions for Thought, Discussion, and Writing.
Sinclair Lewis, “Letter to the Pulitzer Prize Committee.”
Henry J. Hyde, “The Culture War.”
VI. REVISING AND EDITING.
37. Revision and Style as Rethinking.
38. Obstacles to Revision.
39. Responding to Your Teacher's Criticism.
40. Style and Attitudes.
41. Style and Clear Thinking.
42. Editing as Rethinking.
44. Questions for Thought, Discussion, and Writing.
George Orwell, “Politics and the English Language.”
Barbara Mellix, “From Outside, In.”
Aileen Pace Nilsen, “Sexism in English: A 1990s Update.”
VII. APPENDIX: ARGUMENTS FOR DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS.
46. Dale Spender, “Talking in Class.”
47. Henry David Thoreau, “Resistance to Civil Government.”
48. Supreme Court Opinions: Department of Human Resources of Oregon v. Alfred L. Smith et al.