The Significance of Zoochromes

The Significance of Zoochromes

by A.E. Needham

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1974)

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Overview

The Significance of Zoochromes by A.E. Needham

As the title indicates, the theme of this book is the functions of biochromes in animals. Recent works on zoochromes, such as those of D. L. Fox (1953), H. M. Fox and VEVERS (1960) and VUILLAUME (1969), have been concerned primarily with the chemical nature and the taxonomic distribution of these materials, and although function has been considered where relevant this has not been the centre of interest and certainly not the basis for the arrangement of the subject matter. Functional significance is a profitable focus of interest, since it is the one theme which can make biochromatology a discrete and integral subject, and because it is the main interest in all biological fields. At present chromatology seems to be a particularly schizoid subject since it is clear that in metabolic functions biochromes are acting in a chemical capacity whereas integumental pigments function mainly biophysically, in neurological and behavioural contexts. It is profitable to attempt an integration by studying the functions of as many chromes as possible, from all aspects.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642807688
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 02/13/2012
Series: Zoophysiology , #3
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1974
Pages: 432
Product dimensions: 6.69(w) x 9.61(h) x 0.04(d)

Table of Contents

I. General.- 1 Introduction.- 2 Basis and Significance of Colour in Molecules.- 2.1 Physical Basis of Colour.- 2.2 The Electronic Basis of Colour.- 2.3 Other Optical Properties of Biochromes.- 2.3.1 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence.- 2.3.2 Dichromatism or Dichroism.- 2.3.3 Other Relevant Properties.- 2.4 Conclusion.- II. The Nature and Distribution of Zoochromes.- 3 The Chemical Classes of Zoochrome.- 3.1 Chromoproteins and Other Conjugates.- 3.2 Carotenoids.- 3.2.1 Properties.- 3.3 Fuscins.- 3.4 Chroman Biochromes.- 3.4.1 Flavonoids.- 3.5 Ternary Quinones.- 3.5.1 Properties.- 3.6 Metalloproteins.- 3.6.1 Copper Proteins.- 3.6.2 Iron Proteins.- 3.7 Pyrrolic Zoochromes.- 3.7.1 Properties.- 3.8 Indolic Zoochromes.- 3.8.1 Indigotins.- 3.8.2 Other Indolic Oligomeric Chromes.- 3.8.3 Indolic Melanins.- 3.8.4 Other Zoochromes of the Indolic Melanin Pathway.- 3.9 Ommochromes (Phenoxazones) and Related Bio-chromes.- 3.9.1 Properties.- 3.9.2 Other Zoochromes of the Kynurenine Pathway.- 3.10 Other N-heterocyclic Zoochromes: Purines, Pterins and Flavins (Isoalloxazines).- 3.10.1 Purines.- 3.10.2 Pterins.- 3.10.3 Flavins (Isoalloxazines).- 3.11 Other Zoochromes.- 3.12 Zoochromes in Relation to pH.- 3.13 Conclusion.- 4 The Taxonomic Distribution of Zoochromes.- 4.1 Distribution between Animals and Plants.- 4.2 Distribution between the Phyla and Classes of Animals.- 4.2.1 Conclusion.- 4.3 Distribution in the More Obsure Phyla and Classes.- 4.3.1 Conclusion.- 4.4 Distribution between Lower Taxonomic Units.- 4.5 Conclusion.- 5 Distribution and State of Zoochromes in the Body.- 5.1 Distribution of Zoochromes between Organs, Tissues and Fluids of the Body.- 5.1.1-5.1.16 Individual Organs, etc.- 5.1.17 Conclusion.- 5.2 The Location of Chromes within Organs and Tissues.- 5.2.1 Conclusion.- 5.3 The Location and State of Zoochromes within Cells.- 5.3.1 The Chromasome.- 5.3.2 Protozoan Chromes.- 5.3.3 State of Zoochromes in Storage and Scavenging Cells.- 5.3.4 Conclusion.- 5.4 Biochromes and the Solid State.- 5.5 The Stability of Zoochromes.- 5.6 General Conclusion.- III. Physiological Functions of Zoochromes.- 6 The Functions of Integumental Zoochromes.- 6.1 Integumental Colour-Change.- 6.1.1 Chromogenic Change.- 6.1.2 Chromomotor Colour-Change.- 6.1.3 The Mechanism of Chromomotor and Chromogenic Responses.- 6.1.3.1 Primary Responses.- 6.1.3.2 Secondary Responses.- 6.1.3.3 The Response-Mechanism as a Whole.- 6.2 Other Functions of Integumental Chromes.- 6.2.1 Protection against Radiation.- 6.2.2 Mechanical Protection.- 6.2.3 Chemical Defence.- 6.2.4 Thermal Regulation.- 6.3 Conclusion.- 7 Zoochromes and Sensory Perception.- 7.1 Light Perception.- 7.2 Colour Vision.- 7.3 Other Zoochromes of the Retina.- 7.4 Simple Photoperceptors.- 7.5 Zoochromes of Other Perceptor Organs.- 7.6 Conclusion.- IV. Biochemical Functions of Zoochromes.- 8 Oxidation-Reduction Functions of Zoochromes.- 8.1 The Biochromes of the Standard Respiratory Pathways.- 8.1.1 The Molecular Basis of the Action of Respiratory Chromoproteins.- 8.2 Other Redox Reactions Catalysed by Chromoprotein Enzymes.- 8.3 Redox Functions of Other Zoochromes.- 8.4 Photochemical Redox Catalysis by Zoochromes.- 8.5 Biochromes and Bioluminescence.- 8.6 Redox Zoochromes that are Vitamins.- 8.7 Conclusion.- 9 Zoochromes that Transport Oxygen.- 9.1 Physiological Properties of Oxygen-transport-Zoo-chromes.- 9.1.1 Haemoglobins.- 9.1.2 Haemerythrins.- 9.1.3 Haemocyanins.- 9.2 The Molecular Basis of O2-Transport.- 9.2.1 Haemoglobins.- 9.2.2 Haemerythrins.- 9.2.3 Haemocyanins.- 9.2.4 Comparison between the Classes of Oxygen-carriers.- 9.3 Other Metalloproteins and Oxygen-transport.- 9.4 Conclusion.- 10 Zoochromes in Other Aspects of Metabolism.- 10.1 Zoochromes and Digestive Fluids.- 10.2 Zoochromes as End-products of Metabolism.- 10.3 Conclusion.- 11 Pathological States Involving Zoochromes.- 11.1 The Destruction of Zoochromes by Light.- 11.2 Photodynamic Actions of Biochromes.- 11.3 Qualitative Chromopathies.- 11.4 Deficiency and Excess of Dietary Chromes.- 11.5 Deficiency and Excess of Endogenous Chromes.- 11.6 Parasitism and Zoochromes.- 11.7 Conclusion.- V. The Significance of Zoochromes for Reproduction and Development.- 12 Zoochromes in Reproduction and Development.- 12.1 Reproduction.- 12.1.1 Chromes of the Reproductive Organs.- 12.1.2 Integumental Chromes.- 12.1.3 Pubertal and Seasonal Changes.- 12.1.4 Reproductive Metabolism.- 12.1.5 Control of Reproduction.- 12.1.6 Conclusion.- 12.2 Zoochromes in the Ontogenesis of Animals.- 12.2.1 Effects of the Classes of Biochrome on Embryogenesis.- 12.2.2 Pigment Formation by the Embryo.- 12.2.3 Chromogenic Changes during Metamorphosis.- 12.2.4 Conclusion.- VI. Evidence from Chromogenesis in the Individual.- 13 The Evidence from Chromogenic Pathways.- 13.1 Known Chromogenic Pathways.- 13.1.1 Carotenoids.- 13.1.2 Chromones and Flavonoids.- 13.1.3 Ternary Quinones.- 13.1.4 Porphyrins.- 13.1.5 Indolic Melanins.- 13.1.6 Ommochromes.- 13.1.7 Purines, Pterins and Isoalloxazines.- 13.2 Adaptive Features of Chromogenic Pathways.- 13.2.1 The Primality of Chromogenic Pathways.- 13.2.2 Sophistication of Chromogenic Pathways.- 13.2.3 Economy in Chromogenic Pathways.- 13.2.4 Chromogenic Pathways in the Different Taxa.- 13.3 Interrelationships between Chromogenic Pathways.- 13.3.1 General Similarities between Chromogenic Pathways.- 13.3.2 Paths Beginning in a Common Precursor.- 13.3.3 Connections between Pathways.- 13.3.4 Convergence between Pathways.- 13.3.5 Interaction between Members of Different Chromogenic Paths.- 13.3.6 Biochromes Acting as Coenzymes in Chromogenic Paths.- 13.4 Conclusion.- 14 Evidence from the Control of the Supply of Biochromes.- 14.1 Uptake and Handling of Exogenous Chromes.- 14.1.1 Carotenoids.- 14.1.2 Other Exogenous Zoochromes.- 14.1.3 Chromes Acquired Both Exogenously and Endogenously.- 14.1.4 Conclusion.- 14.2 The Control of Chromogenesis.- 14.2.1 Feedback Control of Chromogenesis.- 14.2.2 The Systemic Control of Haem-Synthesis.- 14.2.3 The Control of Phase-coloration in Insects.- 14.2.4 The Control of Exogenous Integumental Chromes.- 14.2.5 The Indirectness of Chromogenic Controls.- 14.2.6 The Chain of Intermediation in Chromogenic Controls.- 14.2.7 Conclusion.- 15 The Development of Integumental Colour-Patterns.- 16 The Genetic Basis of Chromogenesis.- 16.1 Genetic Colour-Polymorphism.- 16.2 General Properties of Chromogenic Mutants.- 16.3 The Alleles at Individual Loci.- 16.4 Alleles at Chromoprotein Loci.- 16.5 The Number and Types of Chromogenic Loci.- 16.6 Interactions between Chromogenic Loci.- 16.7 Chromogenes and Taxonomy.- 16.8 Conclusion.- VII. Evolutionary Evidence and General Assessment.- 17 Zoochromes and Evolution.- 17.1 Fossil Zoochromes.- 17.2 Prebiological Evolution of Organic Chromes.- 17.3 Chromes and the First Discrete Organisms.- 17.4 The Evolution of Chromes in Animals.- 17.5 Conclusion.- 18 General Assessment.- 18.1 Outstanding Adaptations of Zoochromes.- 18.2 Chromatological Problems.- 18.2.1 Problems Concerning Specific Classes of Inte-gumental Chrome.- 18.2.2 Problems Concerning Chromes Other than those of the Integument.- 18.3 Unidentified Zoochromes.- 18.4 Conclusion.- Subject and Systematic Index.

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