The Upper Atmosphere: Data Analysis and Interpretation

The Upper Atmosphere: Data Analysis and Interpretation

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1996)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642787195
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 12/13/2011
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1996
Pages: 1014
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.08(d)

Table of Contents

I Physics of the Upper Atmosphere.- I.1 Introduction to the Earth’s Atmosphere.- I.2 Dynamics of the Atmosphere.- I.2.1 Stationarity and Instationarity.- I.2.2 Small-Scale Dynamics of the Upper Atmosphere: Experimental Studies of Gravity Waves and Turbulence.- I.3 Atmospheric Tides.- I.4 Chemistry in the Atmosphere.- I.5 H2O in the Atmosphere.- I.6 Pollution of the Upper Atmosphere.- I.7 Transatmospheric Propagation of Radio Waves: The Role of the Atmosphere in Communication, Navigation, Geodesy etc..- I.8 Atmosphere as a Part of the Biosphere.- I.9 Legal Aspects.- II Investigation Methods of the Upper Atmosphere.- II.1 Acoustic Methods for Probing the Upper Atmosphere.- II.2 Hydrodynamic and Electrodynamic Measurements.- II.2.1 Introduction.- II.2.2 Observations of Hydrodynamic Parameters.- II.2.3 Foil Chaff Cloud Method.- II.2.4 Meteorological Rockets.- II.2.5 Electrodynamic and Plasma Measurement.- II.3 Electromagnetic Waves in the Upper Atmosphere.- II.3.1 The Refractive Index of the Atmosphere.- II.3.1.1 The Refractive Index of the Atmospheric Gases.- II.3.1.2 Models for the Refractive Index of the Neutral Atmosphere at Frequencies Below 1000 GHz.- II.3.1.3 The Refractive Index of the Ionized Atmosphere.- II.3.1.4 Three-Dimensional Ray Tracing in the Atmosphere.- II.3.2 Radio Frequencies.- II.3.2.1 Observations of the Middle Atmosphere and Lower Thermosphere by Radars.- II.3.2.2 Ionosonde.- II.3.2.3 Incoherent Scatter Technique.- II.3.3 Investigation of the Upper Atmosphere Using the Electromagnetic Spectrum from 30 — 0.1 mm wavelength.- II.3.4 Infrared Observations.- II.3.5 Visible Light.- II.3.6 Ultraviolet Wavelengths.- II.3.7 X-rays in the Atmosphere.- II.4 Chemistry and Physico-Chemistry.- II.5 Modification Methods.- II.5.1 Heating.- II.5.2 Particle Beams.- II.5.3 High-Altitude Nuclear Environments.- III International Reference and Model Atmosphere.- III.1 Selected Features of the Middle Atmosphere.- III.1.1 The Mean Structure of the Middle Atmosphere.- III.1.2 Electron and Ion Densities.- III.2 The Thermosphere: Selected Features.- III.2.1 Introduction.- III.2.2 Composition: Selected Features.- III.2.3 Water Vapour.- III.2.4 Thermospheric Variability and Dynamics.- III.3 The Ionosphere.- III.3.1 Introduction.- III.3.2 Remote Sensing of the Ionosphere.- III.3.3 Ionospheric Regions and Layers.- III.3.4 Production, Loss Processes and Transport.- III.3.5 Electron Density and Ion Density.- III.3.6 Ionospheric Electron Content.- III.3.7 Spatial and Temporal Variability.- III.3.8 Collision Frequencies for the Ionosphere.- III.3.9 Winds and Drifts.- III.3.10 Ionosphere Models.- III.3.11 Ionospheric Disturbances.- III.3.11.1 Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances.- III.3.11.2 Auroral Ion Precipitation.- III.3.11.3 Ionospheric Storms.- III.3.11.4 Scintillations and Others.- III.3.12 International Reference Ionosphere.- III.3.13 Ionospheric Prediction Models.- III.3.14 Anthropogenic Substances and Pollution.- III.4 Magnetosphere.- IV Special Phenomena of the Upper Atmosphere.- IV.1 Stratospheric Midwinter Warmings.- IV.2 The Antarctic Ozone Hole.- IV.3 Polar Mesospheric Clouds.- IV.4 Night Glow.- IV.5 Aurorae.- V Solar-Terrestrial Relations.- V.1 Solar Activity, Solar Cycle, Coordinates.- V.2 The Solar Wind and Its Effects on Geospace.- V.3 Geomagnetic Activity Indices.- VI Data Centres, Computer Network Communications, Observing Systems and Data Growth Rate Problems, Problems with Long-Term Data, Relevant for the Upper Atmosphere.- VI.1 General Overview of Online Services and Data Centres.- VI.2 The World Data Centre System, International Data Exchange, and New ICSU Programs.- VI.3 Computer Network Communications.- VI.4 SELDADS and SELSIS.- VI.5 Data Growth Rate Problems and Problems with Long-Term Data.

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