ISBN-10:
0309054346
ISBN-13:
9780309054348
Pub. Date:
01/07/1999
Publisher:
National Academies Press
The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks / Edition 1

The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks / Edition 1

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Overview

The use of drugs in food animal production has resulted in benefits throughout the food industry; however, their use has also raised public health safety concerns.

The Use of Drugs in Food Animals provides an overview of why and how drugs are used in the major food-producing animal industries—poultry, dairy, beef, swine, and aquaculture. The volume discusses the prevalence of human pathogens in foods of animal origin. It also addresses the transfer of resistance in animal microbes to human pathogens and the resulting risk of human disease.

The committee offers analysis and insight into these areas


  • Monitoring of drug residues. The book provides a brief overview of how the FDA and USDA monitor drug residues in foods of animal origin and describes quality assurance programs initiated by the poultry, dairy, beef, and swine industries.
  • Antibiotic resistance. The committee reports what is known about this controversial problem and its potential effect on human health.

The volume also looks at how drug use may be minimized with new approaches in genetics, nutrition, and animal management. November


Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780309054348
Publisher: National Academies Press
Publication date: 01/07/1999
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 276
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1(11)
The Committee Process 3(1)
Food-Animal Drug Use 4(1)
Approval and Oversight of Food-Animal Drugs 5(1)
Monitoring of Drug Residues 6(1)
Resistance to Antibiotic Drugs 6(3)
Conclusions 9(1)
Major Recommendations 10(2)
Development, Approval, and Availability of Food-Animal Drugs 10(1)
Resistance to Antibiotic Drugs 11(1)
Alternatives to Drug Use in Food Animals 11(1)
1 DRUGS USED IN FOOD ANIMALS: BACKGROUND AND PERSPECTIVES
12(15)
The Role of This Report
13(2)
Review of Previous Reports
15(4)
The Antibiotic Issue
19(8)
A Possible Scenario
20(1)
The Emergence of Antibiotics in Our Lives
20(2)
Food-Animal Antibiotic Resistance and Human Health
22(5)
2 FOOD-ANIMAL PRODUCTION PRACTICES AND DRUG USE
27(42)
Overview
27(2)
The Poultry Industry
29(11)
An Integrated Industry
30(1)
History and Trends in Drug Use
31(3)
Routes of Drug Administration
34(1)
Feed
34(1)
One-Day-of-Age Injection
34(1)
Water Medication
34(4)
Growth Promotion
38(1)
Disease Control
38(1)
Salmonella Control
38(1)
Escherichia coli Control
39(1)
Clostridium Control
39(1)
The Swine Industry
40(4)
Disease Control and Use of Drugs and Chemicals
41(1)
Growth and Metabolic Performance
42(2)
The Dairy Industry
44(4)
Disease Control and Prophylactic Treatments
45(1)
Therapeutic Treatment of Disease
45(2)
Antibiotic Drug Use
47(1)
Production Enhancers
48(1)
The Beef Industry
48(5)
Disease Prevention
50(1)
Trends in Drug Use
50(1)
Therapeutic Drug Use
51(2)
Vaccinations
53(1)
The Veal Industry
53(1)
The Sheep Industry
54(2)
Minor Species
56(1)
The Aquaculture Industry
56(4)
Quality-Assurance Programs and Animal Health Maintenance
60(8)
Poultry Quality-Assurance Programs
60(1)
Pork Quality-Assurance Programs
61(2)
Dairy Quality-Assurance Programs
63(4)
Beef Quality-Assurance Program
67(1)
Summary of Findings
68(1)
3 BENEFITS AND RISKS TO HUMAN HEALTH
69(19)
Overview
69(2)
Prevention
71(1)
Treatment
72(1)
Benefits of Antibiotic Use
73(2)
Possible Hazards of Antibiotic Use
75(6)
Antibiotic Resistance as a Human Health Risk
76(2)
Antibiotic Resistance Trends
78(3)
Human Health Risks from Drug Residues in Foods
81(5)
Antibiotic Toxicities
83(1)
Allergenicity
84(1)
Relative Risks: Residues versus Microbial Contamination
85(1)
Summary of Findings
86(2)
4 DRUG DEVELOPMENT, GOVERNMENT APPROVAL, AND THE REGULATORY PROCESS
88(22)
Overview
88(3)
Restructuring the Regulatory and Approval Process
91(9)
Reforming the Regulatory Process
95(1)
The Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act
96(3)
The Animal Drug Availability Act
99(1)
Human Health Risk, Residues, and Approval
100(4)
Perspectives on Developing Drugs
101(3)
Worldwide Harmonization of the Animal Drug Approval Process
104(2)
Summary of Findings and Recommendations
106(4)
Recommendations
107(3)
5 DRUG RESIDUES AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION IN FOOD: MONITORING AND ENFORCEMENT
110(32)
Drug Residue Standards and Screening
111(2)
Tracking Drug Residues in Food
113(2)
Drug Residues in Meat and Poultry
115(4)
Drug Residues in Fish and Seafood
119(1)
Drug Residues in Milk
119(7)
The Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance
121(1)
Drug Residue Testing in Milk
122(2)
Drug Monitoring in Milk
124(1)
Unresolved Dairy Testing Issues
125(1)
Food-Borne Pathogens and Contamination of Food
126(11)
Determination of Pathogens
127(6)
A Nine-Year Survey of Reported Food-Borne Illness
133(4)
Integrating Issues of Residues and Microbial Contamination
137(3)
Summary of Findings and Recommendations
140(2)
Recommendations
141(1)
6 ISSUES SPECIFIC TO ANTIBIOTICS
142(37)
Development and Functionality of Antibiotic Drugs
143(2)
Identifying and Screening Antibiotics
145(3)
Bacterial Resistance
148(2)
Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria and Animal Management
150(3)
Subtherapeutic versus Therapeutic Use of Drugs
153(8)
Human and Veterinary Clinical Implications of Antibiotic Resistance
161(5)
Cases to Test the System
166(10)
The Fluoroquinolones Issue
168(7)
The Virginiamycin Issue
175(1)
Summary of Findings and Recommendations
176(3)
Recommendations
177(2)
7 COSTS OF ELIMINATING SUBTHERAPEUTIC USE OF ANTIBIOTICS
179(9)
Considerations in Determining the Effect of a Ban
180(4)
Definition of Subtherapeutic Use
180(1)
Measurement Choice
180(2)
Viable Antibiotic Substitutes
182(1)
Total Versus Partial Ban
182(1)
Consumer Behavior
183(1)
Results of Economic Analysis and Conclusions
184(2)
Appendix
186(2)
Technical Notes for Table 7-1
186(1)
Chicken Data
186(1)
Turkey Data
187(1)
Beef Data
187(1)
Pork Data
187(1)
8 APPROACHES TO MINIMIZING ANTIBIOTIC USE IN FOOD-ANIMAL PRODUCTION
188(22)
Animal Management
190(12)
Ambient Temperature and Heat Stress
190(3)
Overcrowding and Behavioral Stress
193(1)
Vaccination Strategies to Prevent Disease
193(2)
DNA Vaccination
195(1)
Beneficial Microbial Cultures, Probiotics, and Competitive Exclusion Alternatives
195(2)
Biosecurity
197(2)
Fly Control
199(1)
Moisture, Mud, and Manure
199(1)
Enhancing Natural Mediators of Immune Function
200(2)
Killed Bacterial Adjuvants: Biomodulation of Cytokine and Immune Function
202(1)
Nutrition
202(4)
Disease Eradication
206(1)
Genetics
207(1)
Recommendations
208(2)
REFERENCES 210(25)
ABOUT THE AUTHORS 235(4)
INDEX 239

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