## Table of Contents

Acknowledgments

Introduction

**The Measurement of Utility and Arrow's Theorem**

The Measurability and Comparability of Utility

The Arrow Impossibility Theorem

Reformulation of the Impossibility Theorem with Utility Functions

The Connection between Arrovian Social Choice and Distributive Justice

Social Choice on Economic Environments

Conclusion

**Axiomatic Bargaining Theory**

Justice as Rational Prudence

The Nash Bargaining Solution

Other Axiomatizations of the Nash Solution

The Kalai-Smorodinsky and Egalitarian Solutions

A Criticism from the Economic Point of View

Conclusion

**Axiomatic Mechanism Theory on Economic Environments**

Introduction

The Domain of Economic Environments

Axioms and Theorems on Economic Environments

Proofs of Theorems

Naming Utility and Goods

Conclusion

**Utilitarianism**

Introduction

Maskin's Theorem

The Representation Theorems of Harsanyi and Myerson

Utilitarianism from behind the Veil of Ignorance

An Implication for the Interpretation of Individual Optimization under Uncertainty

Optimal Population Size

Conclusion

**Primary Goods, Fundamental Preferences, and Functionings**

Countering Utilitarianism

Primary Goods, Welfare, and Equality

Rawls's Arguments for Maximin (the Difference Principle)

The Cohen Criticism

Kolm's Fundamental Preferences

Functionings and Capability

Equality of Functionings or Primary Goods: An Alternative Approach

Conclusion

**Neo-Lockeanism and Self-Ownership**

Nozick's Theory of Distributive Justice

Challenges to Nozick

Joint Ownership of the External World

Generalizations of Locke on Economic Environments

Implementation

The Morality of Self-Ownership

Conclusion

**Equality of Welfare versus Equality of Resources**

Introduction

Dworkin on Equality of Welfare

Countering Dworkin's Central Argument against Equality of Welfare

Dworkin's Definition of Equality of Resources

An Axiomatic Approach to Equality of Resources

Conclusion

**Equality of Opportunity for Welfare**

Relocating Dworkin's Cut, 1

Relocating Dworkin's Cut, 2

Equality of Opportunity: An Example

Equality of Opportunity: A Formalization

A Discrete Formulation of Equality of Opportunity

Examples of the EOp Mechanism

Related Approaches to Equality of Opportunity

Conclusion

Appendix

Appendix: Envy-Free Allocations

References

Index