Theory and Strategy in Histochemistry: A Guide to the Selection and Understanding of Techniques

Theory and Strategy in Histochemistry: A Guide to the Selection and Understanding of Techniques

by Hans Lyon (Editor)

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1991)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642737442
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 11/22/2011
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1991
Pages: 591
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.05(d)

Table of Contents

1: General Considerations.- 1 The Scope of Histochemistry.- 1.1 Histochemieal and Histological Methods.- 1.2 The Histochemical Reaction.- 2 The Structural and Chemical Basis for Histochemistry.- 2.1 Chemical Composition of Cells and Tissues.- 2.2 Structure and Function of the Eukaryotic Cell.- 2.3 The Prokaryotic Cell.- 2.4 The Composition of the Extracellular Matrix.- 3 Reagents.- 3.1 Preparation of Reagents.- 3.2 Solvents.- 3.3 Dyes.- 3.4 Enzymes as Reagents.- 2: Review of Techniques According to Mechanism.- 4 General Theory for Tissue Staining.- 4.1 Tissue Sections.- 4.2 Dye.- 4.3 Solvent.- 4.4 Additives.- 4.5 Bonds Formed Between Dye and Tissue.- 5 Blocking and Deblocking Reactions.- 5.1 Classification of Blocking Reactions According to Mechanism.- 6 Staining of Macromolecules on the Basis of Charge.- 6.1 Tissue Groups that Bind Cationic Dyes.- 6.2 Demonstration of Proteins by Binding of Anionic Dyes.- 6.3 The Mechanism of Staining with Anionic and Cationic Dyes.- 7 Staining Involving Metal Complex Dyes.- 7.1 Complex Compounds.- 7.2 Metal-Haematein Complexes.- 7.3 Chromium-Gallocyanin.- 8 Staining Based on Reductants and Oxidants.- 8.1 Redox Reactions.- 8.2 Classification of Tissue Bound Reductants and Oxidants.- 8.3 Methods for the Demonstration of Reductants and Oxidants.- 9 Staining Involving Covalent Bonds.- 9.1 Alkene Groups.- 9.2 1,2-Glycol and l-Amino-2-Hydroxyl Groups.- 9.3 Thiol (Mercapto or Sulphhydryl) and Disulphide Groups.- 9.4 Aromatic Groups.- 9.5 Amino Groups.- 9.6 Guanidyl Groups.- 9.7 Aldehyde Groups.- 9.8 Acid Groups.- 9.9 Purine-N-C1-Deoxyribose Glycoside Bond.- 3: Tissue Processing.- 10 Tissue Processing I: Overview.- 11 Tissue Processing II: Freezing.- 11.1 Purpose of Freezing Tissue.- 11.2 The Mechanism of Freezing ..- 11.3 The Further Preparation Following Freezing.- 12 Tissue Processing III: Fixation, General Aspects.- 12.1 Definition.- 12.2 Classification of Fixatives.- 12.3 Requirements for the Fixative and the Fixation Process.- 13 Tissue Processing IV: Applied Fixation.- 13.1 Reactions of the Fixatives.- 13.2 Fixation of Proteins.- 13.3 Fixation of Nucleoproteins and Nucleic Acids.- 13.4 Fixation of Carbohydrates.- 13.5 Fixation of Lipids.- 13.6 Fixation of Enzymes.- 13.7 Fixation of Inorganic Components.- 13.8 Fixation of Pigments.- 14 Tissue Processing V: Embedding.- 14.1 Embedding of Tissue.- 14.2 Dehydration.- 14.3 Clearing.- 14.4 Embedding Media.- 14.5 Storage of Embedded Material.- 15 Tissue Processing VI: Hard Tissues.- 15.1 Specimen Types.- 15.2 Fixation.- 15.3 Selection of Tissue Blocks for Further Preparation.- 15.4 Decalcification.- 15.5 Further Preparation Following Decalcification.- 15.6 Staining of Decalcified Sections.- 15.7 Frozen Sections.- 15.8 Preparation of Non-Decalcified Material.- 15.9 Other Special Methods for Hard Tissue.- 16 Tissue Processing VII: Post Treatment.- 16.1 Introduction.- 16.2 Removal of Surplus of Reagent.- 16.3 Further Treatment of the Section.- 16.4 Mounting Media.- 4: The Staining of Chemical Entities.- 17 Metals and Metal Salts.- 17.1 Occurrence.- 17.2 Micro-Incineration.- 17.3 Electron Microscopical X-Ray Microanalysis.- 17.4 Processing of Tissue..- 17.5 Principles for the Histochemical Detection of Metals.- 17.6 Detection Limits.- 17.7 Individual Methods for the Detection of Inorganic Constituents.- 18 Pigments.- 18.1 Description of Pigment Groups and Individual Pigments.- 18.2 The Histochemical Properties of the Individual Pigments.- 18.3 Determination of an Unknown Pigment.- 18.4 Individual Reactions for Pigments.- 19 Lipids.- 19.1 A Survey of Histochemical Reactions for Lipids.- 19.2 Pretreatment.- 19.3 Differential Extraction of Lipids.- 19.4 Masked Lipids.- 19.5 Strategy for the Histochemical Investigation of Lipids.- 19.6 Outline of Lipid Methods.- 19.7 Myelin Methods.- 20 Nucleic Acids.- 20.1 Methods for the Demonstration of Nucleic Acids.- 20.2 Basophilia.- 20.3 Feulgen’s Nucleal Reaction.- 20.4 Application of Reactions for Nucleic Acids.- 20.5 The-Bromo-2'-Deoxyuridine Method 271.- 20.6 In Situ Hybridization.- 20.7 Polymerase Chain Reaction.- 20.8 Control Methods in Nucleic Acid Histochemistry.- 21 Proteins.- 21.1 Introduction.- 21.2 Fixation.- 21.3 Demonstration.- 21.4 Reactions for Protein Bound Amino Acids.- 21.5 Demonstration of Elastin.- 21.6 Demonstration of Collagen.- 21.7 Amyloid.- 22 Carbohydrates.- 22.1 Introduction.- 22.2 Demonstration.- 22.3 Blocking and Extraction.- 22.4 Lectins.- 5: Enzyme Histochemistry.- 23 Enzyme Histochemistry I. General Considerations.- 23.1 Biochemical Aspects.- 23.2 Histochemical Aspects.- 24 Enzyme Histochemistry II. Hydrolases.- 24.1 Principles of Hydrolase Demonstration.- 24.2 Pretreatment.- 24.3 Incubation.- 24.4 Controls in the Histochemical Investigation of Enzyme Activity.- 24.5 Quantitation.- 24.6 Demonstration of Selected Hydrolases.- 25 Enzyme Histochemistry III. Oxidoreductases.- 25.1 Principles of the Cytochemical Demonstration of Anaerobic Dehydrogenases.- 25.2 Principles of the Cytochemical Demonstration of Peroxidases.- 25.3 Principles of the Cytochemical Demonstration of Oxidases.- 25.4 Demonstration of Selected Oxidoreductases.- 6: Other Techniques.- 26 Immunohistochemistry.- 26.1 Definition.- 26.2 Labelling of Antibodies.- 26.3 Immunostaining Methods.- 26.4 The Choice and Evaluation of an Immunohistochemical Staining Technique.- 26.5 Immunohistochemical Controls.- 26.6 Tissue Processing.- 26.7 Quantitation.- 27 Ultrastructural Cytochemistry and Immunocytochemistry.- 27.1 Problems in Ultrastructural Cytochemistry.- 27.2 Some Major Reaction Types.- 27.3 Immunocytochemistry.- 28 Quantitation in Histochemistry.- 28.1 General Considerations.- 28.2 Absorption Photometry.- 28.3 Fluorimetry..- 28.4 Reflection Contrast Photometry.- 28.5 Interferometry.- 28.6 Spectral Analysis.- 28.7 Analysis of Staining Kinetics.- 28.8 Some Applications of Quantitative Histochemistry.- 29 Autoradiography.- 29.1 Physical Principles of Autoradiography.- 29.2 Application.- 29.3 Isotopes.- 29.4 Preconditions for Autoradiographic Experiments.- 29.5 Light Microscopic Autoradiography.- 29.6 Resolution.- 29.7 Artifacts.- 29.8 Quantitation.- 29.9 Radiation Safety.- 30 Fluorescence Microscopic Methods in Histochemistry.- 30.1 Autofluorescence.- 30.2 Induced Fluorescence.- 30.3 Direct Fluorochromy.- 30.4 Indirect Fluorochromy = Immunofluorescence.- 30.5 Enzymatically Provoked Fluorescence.- 7: An Introduction to Applied Histochemistry.- 31 Applied Histochemistry — An Overview.- 31.1 Tissue Processing.- 31.2 General Oversight Stains.- 31.3 Demonstration of Ionized or Ionizable Groups.- 31.4 Demonstration of Microorganisms.- 31.5 Demonstration of Metals.- 31.6 Demonstration of Pigments.- 31.7 Demonstration of Lipids.- 31.8 Demonstration of Nucleic Acids.- 31.9 Demonstration of Proteins.- 31.10 Demonstration of Carbohydrates.- 31.11 Demonstration of Enzyme Activity.- 31.12 The Use of Autoradiography.- 31.13 The Use of Fluorescence Microscopy.- 32 Applied Immunohistochemistry.- 32.1 Introduction.- 32.2 Use and Interpretation of Immunohistochemistry in Diagnostic Pathology.- 32.3 Diagnostic Applications.- 32.4 Immunohistochemistry of Immunologic Disorders.- 32.5 Immunohistochemistry in the Diagnosis of Tumours.- 32.6 Immunohistochemical Identification of Microorganisms.- Appendix A: Standardization of Staining Methods.- A.I General Considerations.- A.2 Examples of Staining Methods.- Appendix B: Quantitative Methods in Microscopy.- B.I Definitions.- B.2 Observations.- B.3 Stereology.- B.4 Special Stereological Tools.- B.5 Simple “Counting” Procedures.- B.6 Manipulating Digital Images.- B.7 Applications of Stereology in Pathology.- References.- Index of Constituents.- Index of Dyes.- Index of Methods.

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