Thermochemical pathways for biomass conversion offer opportunitiesfor rapid and efficient processing of diverse feedstocks intofuels, chemicals and power. Thermochemical processing has severaladvantages relative to biochemical processing, including greaterfeedstock flexibility, conversion of both carbohydrate and lignininto products, faster reaction rates, and the ability to produce adiverse selection of fuels.
Thermochemical Processing of Biomass examines the largenumber of possible pathways for converting biomass into fuels,chemicals and power through the use of heat and catalysts. The bookpresents a practical overview of the latest research in thisrapidly developing field, highlighting the fundamental chemistry,technical applications and operating costs associated withthermochemical conversion strategies.
Bridging the gap between research and practical application,this book is written for engineering professionals in the biofuelsindustry, as well as academic researchers working in bioenergy,bioprocessing technology and chemical engineering.
Topics covered include:
- Fast Pyrolysis
- Hydrothermal Processing
- Upgrading Syngas and Bio-oil
- Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Fuels
- Hybrid Thermochemical/Biochemical Processing
- Economics of Thermochemical Conversion
For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources,visit www.wiley.com/go/rrs
About the Author
Professor Robert C Brown, is based at Iowa State University. He is the founding director of the Bioeconomy Institute (BEI) at ISU, a university-wide initiative that coordinates research, educational, and outreach activities related to biobased products and bioenergy. Dr. Brown also helped establish ISU's Biorenewable Resources and Technology (BRT) graduate program, the first such degree-granting program in the United States. His publications include Biorenewable Resources: Engineering New Products from Agriculture, a textbook for students interested in the Bioeconomy, as well as several book chapters on related topics. Dr. Brown's other administrative duties include directing the Center for Sustainable Environmental Technologies, a $3 million per year research enterprise focusing on thermochemical processing of biomass and fossil fuels. The center has pioneered a variety of innovative technologies including syngas fermentation, bio-oil fermentation, use of? biochars as soil amendment and carbon sequestration agent, and thermally ballasted gasification. He has published over 100 refereed papers and has received over $30 million in cumulative research funding. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineering, a Distinguished Iowa Scientist of the Iowa Academy of Science, and the recipient of the David R. Boylan Eminent Faculty Award for Research at ISU in 2002. He received an R&D 100 Award from Research and Development Magazine in 1997.
Table of Contents
List of Contributors.
1 Introduction to Thermochemical Processing of Biomass intoFuels, Chemicals and Power (Robert C. Brown).
1.2 Direct Combustion.
1.4 Fast Pyrolysis.
1.5 Hydrothermal Processing.
1.6 Hydrolysis to Sugars.
1.7 Technoeconomic Analysis.
2 Biomasss Combustion (Bryan M. Jenkins, Larry L.Baxter and Jaap Koppejan).
2.2 Combustion Systems.
2.3 Fundamentals of Biomass Combustion.
2.4 Pollutant Emissions and Environmental Impacts.
3 Gasification (Richard L. Bain and KarlBroer).
3.2 Fundamentals of Gasification.
3.3 Feed Properties.
3.4 Classifying Gasifiers According to Method of Heating.
3.5 Classifying Gasifiers According to Transport Processes.
3.6 Pressurized Gasification.
3.7 Product Composition.
3.8 System Applications.
4 Syngas Cleanup, Conditioning, and Utilization (DavidC. Dayton, Brian Turk and Raghubir Gupta).
4.2 Syngas Cleanup and Conditioning.
4.3 Syngas Utilization.
4.4 Practical Applications and Industrial Practices.
5 Fast Pyrolysis (Robbie Venderbosch and WolterPrins).
5.2 Bio-Oil Properties.
5.3 Fast Pyrolysis Process Technologies.
5.4 Bio-Oil Fuel Applications.
5.5 Chemicals from Bio-Oil.
5.6 Concluding Remarks.
6 Upgrading Fast Pyrolysis Liquids (AnthonyBridgwater).
6.1 Introduction to Fast Pyrolysis and Bio-Oil.
6.2 Liquid Characteristics and Quality.
6.3 Significant Factors Affecting Characteristics.
6.4 Norms and Standards.
6.5 Bio-Oil Upgrading.
6.6 Chemical and catalytic Upgrading of Bio-oil.
7 Hydrothermal Processing (Douglas C.Elliott).
7.4 Hydrothermal Liquefaction.
7.5 Hydrothermal Gasification.
7.6 Pumping Biomass into Hydrothermal Processing Systems.
7.7 Conclusions of Hydrothermal Processing.
8 Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Fuels (Geoffrey A.Tompsett, Ning Li and George W. Huber).
8.2 Chemistry of Sugars.
8.3 Hydrogen from Sugars.
8.4 Sugar to Light Alkanes.
8.5 Sugars to Oxygenates.
8.6 Sugars to Larger Alkanes.
8.7 Sugar Conversion to Aromatics.
8.8 Conclusions and Summary.
9 Hybrid Processing (DongWon Choi, Alan A. DiSpirito,David C. Chipman and Robert C. Brown).
9.2 Syngas Fermentation.
9.3 Bio-Oil Fermentation.
10 Cost of Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Power andLiquid Fuels (Mark M. Wright and Robert C. Brown).
10.2 Electric Power Generation.
10.3 Liquid Fuels via Gasification.
10.4 Liquid Fuels via Fast Pyrolysis.
Summary and Conclusions.