ISBN-10:
0471374911
ISBN-13:
2900471374915
Pub. Date:
06/28/2000
Publisher:
Wiley
Thermodynamics and Kinetics for the Biological Sciences / Edition 1

Thermodynamics and Kinetics for the Biological Sciences / Edition 1

by Gordon G. Hammes
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Overview

Thermodynamics explains if a chemical reactions will occur spontaneously. Kinetics deals with the rate at which chemical reactions occur. This book provides biological researchers with a clear, easily accessible introduction to thermodynamics and kinetics, providing numerous biological examples.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900471374915
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 06/28/2000
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 184
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

GORDON G. HAMMES, PhD, is University Distinguished Service Professor of Biochemistry at Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, and Editor-in-Chief of the journal Biochemistry.

Table of Contents

Prefaceix
1.Heat, Work, and Energy1
1.1Introduction1
1.2Temperature2
1.3Heat3
1.4Work4
1.5Definition of Energy7
1.6Enthalpy9
1.7Standard States10
1.8Calorimetry11
1.9Reaction Enthalpies15
1.10Temperature Dependence of the Reaction Enthalpy17
References18
Problems18
2.Entropy and Free Energy21
2.1Introduction21
2.2Statement of the Second Law22
2.3Calculation of the Entropy24
2.4Third Law of Thermodynamics26
2.5Molecular Interpretation of Entropy27
2.6Free Energy28
2.7Chemical Equilibria30
2.8Pressure and Temperature Dependence of the Free Energy33
2.9Phase Changes35
2.10Additions to the Free Energy37
Problems37
3.Applications of Thermodynamics to Biological Systems41
3.1Biochemical Reactions41
3.2Metabolic Cycles42
3.3Direct Synthesis of ATP47
3.4Establishment of Membrane Ion Gradients by Chemical Reactions48
3.5Protein Structure50
3.6Protein Folding56
3.7Nucleic Acid Structures59
3.8DNA Melting62
3.9RNA66
References68
Problems68
4.Chemical Kinetics71
4.1Introduction71
4.2Reaction Rates73
4.3Determination of Rate Laws75
4.4Radioactive Decay78
4.5Reaction Mechanisms79
4.6Temperature Dependence of Rate Constants83
4.7Relationship Between Thermodynamics and Kinetics86
4.8Reaction Rates Near Equilibrium88
References91
Problems91
5.Applications of Kinetics to Biological Systems94
5.1Introduction94
5.2Enzyme Catalysis: The Michaelis--Menten Mechanism94
5.3[alpha]-Chymotrypsin99
5.4Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase106
5.5Ribozymes109
5.6DNA Melting and Renaturation113
References119
Problems120
6.Ligand Binding to Macromolecules124
6.1Introduction124
6.2Binding of Small Molecules to Multiple Identical Binding Sites124
6.3Macroscopic and Microscopic Equilibrium Constants127
6.4Statistical Effects in Ligand Binding to Macromolecules128
6.5Experimental Determination of Ligand Binding Isotherms132
6.6Binding of Cro Repressor Protein to DNA135
6.7Cooperativity in Ligand Binding138
6.8Models for Cooperativity143
6.9Kinetic Studies of Cooperative Binding147
6.10Allosterism148
References151
Problems152
Appendixes
1.Standard Free Energies and Enthalpies of Formation at 298 K, 1 Atmosphere, pH 7, and 0.25 M Ionic Strength154
2.Standard Free Energy and Enthalpy Changes for Biochemical Reactions at 298 K, 1 Atmosphere, pH 7.0, pMg 3.0, and 0.25 M Ionic Strength156
3.Structures of the Common Amino Acids at Neutral pH157
4.Useful Constants and Conversion Factors159
Index161

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