ISBN-10:
1569904073
ISBN-13:
9781569904077
Pub. Date:
03/01/2008
Publisher:
Hanser
Thermoplastic and Rubber Compounds: Technology and Physical Chemistry

Thermoplastic and Rubber Compounds: Technology and Physical Chemistry

by James L. White, Kwang-Jea Kim

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781569904077
Publisher: Hanser
Publication date: 03/01/2008
Pages: 301
Product dimensions: 6.70(w) x 9.60(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

Preface VII

1 Overview and Compound Ingredients 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Philosophy of Polymer Compounds 1

1.3 Polymers 4

1.3.1 Homopolymers 4

1.3.2 Copolymers 8

1.3.2.1 General 8

1.3.2.2 Butadiene Copolymers 9

1.3.2.3 Ethylene-Olefin Copolymers 11

1.3.3 Molecular Weight Distribution 12

1.3.4 Transition Behavior 13

1.3.5 Melt Rheological Properties 15

1.3.6 Mechanical Behavior 22

1.4 Particle Fillers and Reinforcements 23

1.4.1 General 23

1.4.2 Carbon Black 24

1.4.3 Calcium Carbonate 27

1.4.4 Zinc Oxide (ZnO) 29

1.4.5 Titanium Dioxide 31

1.4.6 Silica 31

1.4.7 Talc and Mica 36

1.4.8 Kaolin Clays 39

1.4.9 Fibrous Silicates and Wollastonite 41

1.4.10 Glass Fibers 43

1.4.11 Glass Spheres 43

1.4.12 Organic Fillers 44

1.4.12.1 Cellulose and Cellulose Fibers 45

1.4.12.2 Starch 51

1.4.12.3 Aramid Fibers 52

1.4.12.4 Carbon Fibers 53

1.4.13 Nanofillers 53

1.4.13.1 Montmorillonite 53

1.4.13.2 Carbon Nanotubes 54

1.5 Oils and Plasticizers 55

1.6 Antidegradents 56

1.7 Processing Aids 57

1.8 Curatives 60

1.9 Accelerators 62

2 Polymer-Particle Filler Systems 73

2.1 Introduction 73

2.2 Particle Properties and Interaction 73

2.2.1 Particle Density 73

2.2.2 Particle Size 75

2.2.3 Particle Shape 77

2.3 Hydrodynamic Theory of Suspensions 78

2.3.1 General 78

2.3.2 Spheres 79

2.3.3 Ellipsoids 80

2.3.4 Interacting Particles 81

2.3.5 Continuum Theories 81

2.4 Experimental Studies of Compound Properties 82

2.4.1 Large Spheres 82

2.4.2 Large Fibers and Ellipsoids 83

2.4.2.1 Fluids 83

2.4.2.2 Solids 85

2.4.3 Carbon Black 89

2.4.3.1 Thermoplastic Melts/Uncured Compounds 89

2.4.3.2 Rubber Vulcanizates91

2.4.4 Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) 93

2.4.4.1 Thermoplastic Melts 93

2.4.4.2 Solid Thermoplastics 95

2.4.5 Silica 96

2.4.5.1 Uncured Rubber Compounds 96

2.4.5.2 Rubber Vulcanizates 96

2.4.6 Talc and Mica 96

2.4.6.1 Thermoplastic Melts 96

2.4.6.2 Solid Polymers 98

2.4.7 Montmorillonite and Organo Clays (Nano Composites) 98

2.4.8 Carbon Nano-Tubes 99

2.5 Summary 100

3 Polymer Solutions and Swollen Vulcanizates 105

3.1 Introduction 105

3.2 Low Molecular Weight Solutions 105

3.3 Thermodynamics of Polymer Solutions: Flexible Chains 110

3.4 Solubility of Crystalline Polymers 112

3.5 Solutions of Rigid Chain Polymers 113

3.6 Thermodynamics of Heterogeneous Flexible Chain Polymer Solutions 114

3.7 Phase Separation and Equilibrium 114

3.8 Swelling of Vulcanizates 117

3.9 Rheological Properties of Polymer Solutions 118

3.10 Oil-Extended Rubber 122

3.11 Plasticized Polyvinyl Chloride 123

3.12 Summary 124

4 Polymer Additive Binary Systems 129

4.1 Introduction 129

4.2 Solubility of Additives 129

4.3 Antioxidants 131

4.3.1 General 131

4.3.2 Mechanism of Oxidation 132

4.3.3 Antioxidant Mechanisms 133

4.3.4 Antioxidant Miscibility 133

4.3.5 Antioxidant Migration 134

4.4 Antiozonants 136

4.5 Light Stabilizers 137

4.6 Heat Stabilizers 138

4.7 Processing Aids 140

4.8 Surface Property Modifiers 144

4.9 Antistatic Additives 144

4.10 Nucleating Agents 145

4.11 Curatives 147

4.11.1 Sulfur Crosslinking 147

4.11.2 Crosslinking by Organic Peroxides 148

4.11.3 Crosslinking by Metallic Oxides 149

4.11.4 Crosslinking by Phenolic Derivatives 149

4.11.5 Crosslinking by High Energy Radiation 149

4.12 Summary 152

5 Binary Polymer Blends 157

5.1 Introduction 157

5.2 Thermodynamics of Polymer-Polymer Miscibility 157

5.3 Statistical Thermodynamic Interpretation 159

5.4 Miscible Polymer Blends 160

5.5 Partial Miscibility 164

5.6 Problems With Copolymers 166

5.7 Immiscible Polymer Blends and Interfacial Tension 167

5.8 Phase Morphology in Immiscible Binary Polymer Blends 173

5.9 Special Polymer Melt Phase Distributions 175

5.10 Mechanical Properties of Binary Polymer Blends 177

5.11 Blends of Recycled Polymers 177

6 Ternary Systems: Polymer Blends plus Liquid Additives and Compatibilizing Agents 181

6.1 Introduction 181

6.2 Ternary Low Molecular Weight Systems 181

6.3 Polymer Plus Two Low Molecular Weight Liquids 183

6.4 Low Molecular Weight Oils/Additives in Binary Polymer Blends 186

6.5 Amphiphilic Molecules and Block Graft Copolymers in Immiscible Polymer Blends (Compatibilized Blends) 190

6.6 Mechanical Properties of Compatibilized Blends 192

6.7 Compatibilized Recycled Polymer Blends 194

6.8 High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) 194

6.9 Ternary Polymer Blends 195

6.10 Summary 195

7 Polymer-Filler-Additives and Curative-Accelerator Compounds 201

7.1 Introduction 201

7.2 Mineral Fillers: Carboxylic Acid-Polymer 201

7.3 Organic-Silane Coupling Agent for Thermosets, Thermoplastics, and Rubber 203

7.4 Organo Clay Nanocomposites (Clay-Organic Amine-Polymer) 205

7.5 Rubber-Sulfur-Accelerator 207

7.6 Crosslinking by Enzymes 208

7.7 Particle Filler with Two Polymers 208

8 Multicomponent Compounds 213

8.1 Introduction 213

8.2 Simple Multicomponent Compounds 213

8.3 Tire Compounds 214

8.3.1 Polydiene-Carbon Black Oil Compounds 214

8.3.2 Polydiene-Rubber-Silica Compounds 215

8.4 Thermoplastic Compounds 216

8.4.1 Polyvinyl Chloride Compounds 216

8.4.2 Isotactic Polypropylene Compounds 217

8.4.3 Recycled Polymer Blend Compounds 218

8.5 Rubber Compounds with Special Mechanical Properties 219

8.5.1 Chlorinated Butyl Rubber Compounds 219

8.5.2 Nitrile Rubber Compounds 222

8.5.3 Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Terpolymer (EPDM) Compounds 224

8.6 Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPE) Compounds 225

8.6.1 Elastomer-Modified Polypropylene 225

8.6.2 SBS-Type Thermoplastic Elastomer 225

9 Mixing Machinery: Batch and Continuous 229

9.1 Introduction 229

9.2 Batch Mixers 229

9.2.1 Mills 229

9.2.2 Open Batch Mixers 230

9.2.3 Internal Mixers: Non-Intermeshing Rotors 234

9.2.3.1 Technology 234

9.2.3.2 Basic Studies 243

9.2.4 Internal Mixers: Intermeshing 246

9.2.4.1 Technology 246

9.2.4.2 Basic Studies 247

9.2.5 Internal Mixer Cycles 249

9.3 Continuous Mixers 249

9.3.1 Single-Screw Extruders 249

9.3.2 List (Buss-Coperion) Kokneters/Kneaders 249

9.3.2.1 Technology 249

9.3.2.2 Basic Studies 251

9.3.3 Intermeshing Modular Co-Rotating Twin-Screw Extruders 252

9.3.3.1 Technology 252

9.3.3.2 Basic Studies 255

9.3.4 Intermeshing Modular Counter-Rotating Twin-Screw Extruders 257

9.3.4.1 Technology 257

9.3.4.2 Basic Studies 259

9.3.5 Tangential Modular Counter-Rotating Twin-Screw Extruders 260

9.3.5.1 Technology 260

9.3.5.2 Basic Studies 260

9.3.6 Continuous Mixers 261

9.3.6.1 Technology 261

9.3.6.2 Basic Studies 262

9.3.7 The Strategy of Adding Ingredients During Continuous Mixing 264

9.4 Comparison of Commercial Mixing Machines 264

9.4.1 Batch Internal Mixers vs. Continuous Mixers 264

9.4.2 Comparison of Continuous Mixing Machines 265

9.5 Reactive Extrusion 265

9.5.1 Polymer Modification and Grafting Reactions 265

9.5.2 Polymerization 266

Subject Index 275

Author Index 287

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