Quantifying the timescales of current geological processes is critical for constraining the physical mechanisms operating on the Earth today. Since the Earth’s origin 4.55 billion years ago magmatic processes have continued to shape the Earth, producing the major reservoirs that exist today (core, mantle, crust, oceans and atmosphere) and promoting their continued evolution. But key questions remain. When did the core form and how quickly? How are magmas produced in the mantle, and how rapidly do they travel towards the surface? How long do magmas reside in the crust, differentiating and interacting with the host rocks to yield the diverse set of igneous rocks we see today? How fast are volcanic gases such as carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere?
This book addresses these and other questions by reviewing the latest advances in a wide range of Earth Science disciplines: from the measurement of short-lived radionuclides to the study of element diffusion in crystals and numerical modelling of magma behaviour. It will be invaluable reading for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as igneous petrologists, mineralogists and geochemists involved in the study of igneous rocks and processes.
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About the Author
Simon P. Turner obtained his PhD at the University of Adelaide in 1991. Currently he holds an ARC Professorial Fellowship in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia where he specializes in the application of U-series isotopes to constraining the time scales of Earth processes with particular emphasis on subduction zone magmatism.
James A. Van Orman is an Associate Professor in Geological Sciences at Case Western Reserve University. He was awarded a PhD in geochemistry at MIT and undertook postdoctoral research in mineral physics and geochemistry at the Carnegie Institution of Washington. His research is centered on diffusion in minerals and melts, with current interests in deep planetary rheology, chemical exchange processes, and geochronology.
Table of ContentsList of Contributors.
Introduction to the Timescales of Magmatic Processes (Anthony Dosseto, Simon P. Turner, Fidel Costa and James A. Van Orman).
1 Extinct Radionuclides and the Earliest Differentiation of the Earth and Moon (G. Caro and T. Kleine).
2 Diffusion Constraints on Rates of Melt Production in the Mantle (James A. Van Orman and Alberto E. Saal).
3 Melt Production in the Mantle: Constraints from U-series (Bernard Bourdon and Tim Elliott).
4 Formulations for Simulating the Multiscale Physics of Magma Ascent (Craig O'Neill and Marc Spiegelman).
5 Melt Transport from the Mantle to the Crust – Uranium-Series Isotopes (Simon P. Turner and Bernard Bourdon).
6 Rates of Magma Ascent: Constraints from Mantle-Derived Xenoliths (Suzanne Y. O'Reilly and W.L. Griffin).
7 Time Constraints from Chemical Equilibration in Magmatic Crystals (Fidel Costa and Daniel Morgan).
8 Magma Cooling and Differentiation – Uranium-series Isotopes (Anthony Dosseto and Simon P. Turner).
9 Defining Geochemical Signatures and Timescales of Melting Processes in the Crust: An Experimental Tale of Melt Segregation, Migration and Emplacement (Tracy Rushmer and Kurt Knesel).
10 Timescales Associated with Large Silicic Magma Bodies (Olivier Bachmann).
11 Timescales of Magma Degassing (Kim Berlo, James E. Gardner and Jonathan D. Blundy).
What People are Saying About This
“This is definitely a book to borrow when you next have a sighting of the OUGS library.” (Open University Geological Society Journal, 1 November 2012)
“The volume is well presented and clearly written by authors who are leading authorities in their different fields; it succeeds well in its stated objective of providing an accessible introduction to the subject and it should encourage others to get involved.” (American Mineralogist, 1 October 2012)
“In summary, this is a well-organized and thorough study of a developing field in whole-earth studies. Many of the papers stress that their studies are in the early stages and need much more data to help refine the models. While clearly aimed at a specialist audience, there is still much here to interest people in other areas of the geosciences.” (The Leading Edge, 1 August 2012)
“Certainly this book is worth recommendation not only as a valuable handbook but also a book which offers new hints for further research on the problems mentioned within.” (PAGEOPH's, 2012)
"The book is logically organised, from inside the Earth (core and mantle) outward to the atmosphere . . . It will certainly be a useful reference work for academics, even those of us working with, and familiar with, the timescales of magmatic processes. Furthermore it's a handy mid-sized paperback, easy to toss into a carry-on and dip into en route to the next conference or workshop." (Elements, 1 August 2011)
"I would recommend this book to any serious student of magmatic processes and expect that it will stand as a useful source book on timescales for some time to come." (Bull Volcanol, 2011)