Tobacco Road: A Novel available in Paperback
Set during the Depression in the depleted farmlands surrounding Augusta, Georgia, Tobacco Road was first published in 1932. It is the story of the Lesters, a family of white sharecroppers so destitute that most of their creditors have given up on them. Debased by poverty to an elemental state of ignorance and selfishness, the Lesters are preoccupied by their hunger, sexual longings, and fear that they will someday descend to a lower rung on the social ladder than the black families who live near them.
About the Author
ERSKINE CALDWELL (1903-1987) was born in Newnan, Georgia. He became one of America's most widely read, prolific, and critically debated writers, with a literary output of more than sixty titles. At the time of his death, Caldwell's books had sold eighty million copies worldwide in more than forty languages. He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1984.
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By Erskine Caldwell
OPEN ROAD INTEGRATED MEDIACopyright © 1960 Erskine Caldwell
All rights reserved.
Lov Bensey trudged homeward through the deep white sand of the gully-washed tobacco road with a sack of winter turnips on his back. He had put himself to a lot of trouble to get the turnips; it was a long and tiresome walk all the way to Fuller and back again.
The day before, Lov had heard that a man over there was selling winter turnips for fifty cents a bushel, so he had started out with half a dollar early that morning to buy some. He had already walked seven and a half miles, and it was a mile and a half yet back to his house at the coal chute.
Four or five of the Lesters were standing in the yard looking at Lov when he put his sack down and stopped in front of the house. They had been watching Lov ever since he was first seen an hour before on the sand hill nearly two miles away, and now that he was actually within reach, they were prepared to stop him from carrying the turnips any farther.
Lov had his wife to feed and provide for, in addition to himself, and he was careful not to allow any of the Lesters to come too close to the sack of turnips. Usually when he came by the Lester place with turnips or sweet potatoes, or for that matter with any kind of food, he left the road half a mile from the house and made a wide circle through the fields, returning to the road a safe distance beyond. Today, though, he had to speak to Jeeter about something of great importance, and he had ventured closer to the house than he had ever done before when carrying home turnips or sweet potatoes.
Lov's wife was Jeeter Lester's youngest daughter, Pearl. She was only twelve years old the summer before when he had married her.
The Lesters watched Lov closely while he stood in the middle of the road. He had dropped the sack from his shoulder, but he held the neck of it in the rigid grasp of both hands. No one in the yard had changed his position during the past ten minutes. The next move was left entirely up to Lov.
When Lov came to the house and stopped, he had a good reason for doing so; otherwise he would never have come within hailing distance. He wanted to speak to Jeeter about Pearl.
Pearl would not talk. She would not say a word, no matter how persuasive Lov tried to be, nor how angry he was; she even hid from Lov when he came home from the coal chute, and when he found her, she slipped away from his grasp and ran off into the broom-sedge out of sight. Sometimes she would even stay in the broom-sedge all night, remaining out there until Lov went to work the next morning.
Pearl had never talked, for that matter. Not because she could not, but simply because she did not want to. When she was at home, before Lov had married her, she had stayed apart from the other Lesters and rarely opened her mouth from the beginning of one day to the next. Only her mother, Ada, had been able to converse with her, and even then Pearl had never used more than the barest of negatives and affirmatives in reply. But Ada was herself like that. She had begun to talk voluntarily only during the past ten years. Before then, Jeeter had had the same trouble with her that Lov was now having with Pearl.
Lov asked Pearl questions, he kicked her, he poured water over her, he threw rocks and sticks at her, and he did everything else he could think of that he thought might make her talk to him. She cried a lot, especially when she was seriously hurt, but Lov did not consider that as conversation. He wanted her to ask him if his back were sore, and when was he going to get his hair cut, and when was it going to rain again. But Pearl would not say anything.
He had spoken to Jeeter several times before about his troubles with Pearl, but Jeeter did not know what was the matter with her. Ever since she was a baby she had been like that, he said; and Ada had remained untalkative until the last few years. What Jeeter had not been able to break down in Ada for forty years, hunger had. Hunger loosened her tongue, and she had been complaining ever since. Jeeter did not attempt to recommend the starving of Pearl, because he knew she would go somewhere to beg food, and would get it.
"Sometimes I think it's just the old devil in her," Lov had said several times. "To my way of thinking, she ain't got a scratch of religion in her. She's going to hell-fire when she dies, sure as day comes."
"Now, maybe she ain't pleased with her married life," Jeeter had suggested. "Maybe she ain't satisfied with what you provide her with."
"I done everything I can think of to make her satisfied and contented. Every week I go to Fuller on pay-day and buy her a pretty. I get her snuff, but she won't take none; I get her a little piece of calico, but she won't sew it. Looks like she wants something I ain't got and can't get her. I wish I knowed what it was. She's such a pretty little girl—all them long yellow curls hanging down her back sort of gets me all crazy sometimes. I don't know what's going to happen to me. I've got the need of Pearl for a wife as bad as any man ever had."
"I expect she's too young yet to appreciate things," Jeeter had said. "She ain't grown up yet like Ellie May and Lizzie Belle and Clara and the other gals. Pearl ain't nothing but a little gal yet. She don't even look like a woman, so far."
"If I had knowed she was going to be like she is, maybe I wouldn't have wanted to marry her so bad. I could have married me a woman what wants to be married to me. But I don't want Pearl to go now, though. I sort of got used to her around, and I'd sure miss seeing them long yellow curls hanging down her back. They make a man feel kind of lonesome some way. She sure is a pretty little girl, no matter if she does act like she does all the time."
Lov had gone back home that time and told Pearl what Jeeter said about her, but she sat in the chair and made no sign of answering him. Lov did not know what to do about her after that. But he had realized from that time on that she was still a little girl. During the eight months they had been married she had grown three or four inches in height, and she weighed about fifteen pounds more now than she had at the beginning. She still did not weigh much more than a hundred pounds, though she was gaining in weight and height every day.
What Lov wanted to speak to Jeeter about now in particular was the way Pearl had of refusing to sleep with him. They had been married almost a year, and still she slept by herself, as she had done since the first. She slept by herself on a pallet on the floor, refusing even to let Lov kiss her or touch her in any way. Lov had told her that cows were not any good until they had been freshened, and that the reason he married her was because he wanted to kiss her and feel her long yellow curls and sleep with her; but Pearl had not even indicated that she heard him or knew what he was talking about. Next to wanting to kiss her and talk to her, Lov wanted to see her eyes. Yet even this pleasure she denied him; her pale blue eyes were always looking off into another direction when he came and stood in front of her.
Lov still stood in the middle of the road looking at Jeeter and the other Lesters in the yard. They were waiting for him to make the first move; friendly or hostile, it mattered little to them so long as there were turnips in the sack.
Jeeter was wondering where Lov had got the turnips. It did not occur to him that Lov had bought them with money; Jeeter had long before come to the conclusion that the only possible way a quantity of food could be obtained was by theft. But he had not been able to locate a turnip patch that year anywhere within five or six miles. There had been planted a two-acre field the year before over at the Peabody place, but the Peabody men had kept people out of the field with shotguns then, and this year they had not even planted turnips.
"Why don't you come in the yard off the tobacco road, Lov?" Jeeter said. "Ain't no sense standing out there. Come in and rest yourself."
Lov made no reply, nor did he move. He was debating within himself the danger of entering the yard, against the safety of staying where he was in the road.
For the past few weeks Lov had been thinking about taking some plow-lines and tying Pearl in the bed at night. He had tried everything that he could think of so far, except force, and he was still determined to make her act as he thought a wife should. He had reached the point now where he wanted Jeeter's advice before going ahead with the plan. He believed Jeeter would know whether it was advisable from the practical side, since Jeeter had had to contend with Ada for almost a lifetime. He knew Ada had once acted as Pearl was now doing, but Jeeter had not been treated as he was treated, because Ada had borne him seventeen children, while Pearl had not even begun to have the first one.
If Jeeter said it would be satisfactory to tie Pearl in bed, then he would go ahead and do it. Jeeter knew more about such things than he did. Jeeter had been married to Ada forty years.
Lov hoped that Jeeter would offer to go down to the house at the coal chute and help him tie Pearl in the bed. Pearl fought back so fiercely whenever he attempted to catch her that he was afraid he would not be able to accomplish anything without Jeeter's help.
The Lesters stood around in the yard and on the front porch waiting to see what Lov was going to do next. There had been very little in the house again that day to eat; some salty soup Ada had made by boiling several fat-back rinds in a pan of water, and corn bread, was all there was when they had sat down to eat. There had not been enough to go around even then, and the old grandmother had been shoved out of the kitchen when she tried to come inside.
Ellie May stood behind a chinaberry tree, looking around the trunk at Lov. She moved her head from one side of the tree to the other, trying to attract Lov's attention.
Ellie May and Dude were the only Lester children left at home. All the others had gone away and married, some of them just leaving in a casual way as though they were only walking down to the coal chute to see the freight trains. When they failed to return within two or three days, it was known that they had left home.
Dude was throwing a lopsided baseball at the side of the house, and catching it on the rebound. The ball hit the house like a clap of thunder, rattling the loose weather-boarding until the vibration swayed the house from side to side. He threw the ball continually, the ball bounding with unfailing regularity back across the sandy yard to where he stood.
The three-room house sat precariously on stacks of thin lime-rock chips that had been placed under the four corners. The stones had been laid one on top of the other, the beams spiked, and the house nailed together. The ease and simplicity with which it had been built was now evident. The centre of the building sagged between the sills; the front porch had sagged loose from the house, and was now a foot or more lower than it originally was; and the roof sagged in the centre where the supporting rafters had been carelessly put together. Most of the shingles had rotted, and after every wind-storm pieces of them were scattered in all directions about the yard. When the roof leaked, the Lesters moved from one corner of the room to another, their movements finally outlasting the duration of the rain. The house had never been painted.
Jeeter was trying to patch a rotten inner-tube. He had said that if he could ever get all the tires on the old automobile standing up at the same time again, he would haul a load of wood to Augusta and sell it. Woodcutters were being paid two dollars a load for seasoned pine delivered in the city; but the blackjack that Jeeter tried to make people buy for fuel never brought him more than fifty or seventy-five cents. Usually, when he did succeed in getting a load of it to Augusta, he was not able to give it away; nobody, it seemed, was foolish enough to buy wood that was tougher than iron water-pipes. People argued with Jeeter about his mule-like determination to sell blackjack for fuel, and they tried to convince him that as firewood it was practically worthless; but Jeeter said he wanted to clear the land of the scrub oak because he was getting ready to farm it again.
Lov had by that time moved a few steps nearer the yard and had sat down in the tobacco road with his feet in the drain ditch. He kept one hand gripped tightly around the mouth of the sack where it had been tied together with a piece of twine.
Ellie May continued to peer from behind the china-berry tree, trying to attract Lov's attention. Each time he glanced in that direction, she jerked her head back so he could not see her.
"What you got in that there croker sack, Lov?" Jeeter shouted across the yard. "I been seeing you come a far piece off with that there croker sack on your back. I sure would like to know what you got on the inside of it. I heard it said that some people has got turnips this year."
Lov tightened his grip on the mouth of the sack, looking from Jeeter to the next Lester in turn. He saw Ellie May peering at him from behind the chinaberry tree.
"Did you have a hard time getting what you got there in the sack, Lov?" Jeeter said. "You look like you is all out of breath."
"I want to say something to you, Jeeter," he said. "It's about Pearl."
"What's that gal done now, Lov? Is she treating you mean some more?"
"It's just like she's always done, only I'm getting pretty durn tired of it by this time. I don't like the way she acts. I never did take to the way she does, but it's getting worse and worse all the time. All the niggers make fun of me because of the way she treats me."
"Pearl is just like her Ma," Jeeter said. "Her Ma used to do the queerest things in her time."
"Every time I want to have her around me, she runs off and won't come back when I call her. Now, what I say is, what in hell is the sense in me marrying a wife if I don't get none of the benefits. God didn't intend for it to be that way. He don't want a man to be treated like that. It's all right for a woman to sort of tease a man into doing what she wants done, but Pearl don't seem to be aiming after that. She ain't teasing me, to her way of thinking, but it sure does act that way on me. Right now I feel like I want a woman what ain't so—"
"What you got in that there croker sack, Lov?" Jeeter said. "I been seeing you for the past hour or longer, ever since you came over the top of that far hill yonder."
"Turnips, by God," Lov said, looking at the Lester women.
"Where'd you get turnips, Lov?"
"Wouldn't you like to know!"
"I was thinking maybe we might fix up some sort of a trade, Lov—me and you. Now, I could go down to your house and sort of tell Pearl she's got to sleep in the bed with you. That's what you was aiming to speak to me about, wasn't it? You want her to sleep in the bed, don't you?"
"She ain't never slept in the bed. It's that durn pallet on the floor that she sleeps on every night. Reckon you could make her stop doing that, Jeeter?"
"I'd be pleased something powerful to make her do what she ain't doing. That is, if me and you could make a trade with them turnips, Lov."
"That's what I came by here for—to speak to you about Pearl. But I ain't going to let you have none of these turnips, though. I had to pay fifty cents for this many in a sack, and I had to walk all the way to the other side of Fuller and back to fetch them. You're Pearl's daddy, and you ought to make her behave for nothing. She don't pay no attention to nothing I tell her to do."
"By God and by Jesus, Lov, all the damn-blasted turnips I raised this year is wormy. And I ain't had a good turnip since a year ago this spring. All my turnips has got them damn-blasted green-gutted worms in them, Lov. What God made turnip-worms for, I can't make out. It appears to me like He just naturally has got it in good and heavy for a poor man. I worked all the fall last year digging up a patch of ground to grow turnips in, and then when they're getting about big enough to pull up and eat, along comes these damn-blasted green-gutted turnip-worms and bore clear to the middle of them. God is got it in good and heavy for the poor. But I ain't complaining, Lov. I say, 'The good Lord knows best about turnips.' Some of these days He'll bust loose with a heap of bounty and all us poor folks will have all we want to eat and plenty to clothe us with. It can't always keep getting worse and worse every year like it has got since the big war. God, He'll put a stop to it some of these days and make the rich give back all they've took from us poor folks. God is going to treat us right. He ain't going to let it keep on like it is now. But we got to stop cussing Him when we ain't got nothing to eat. He'll send a man to hell and the devil for persisting in doing that."
Lov dragged the sack of turnips across the drain ditch and sat down again. Jeeter laid aside the rotten inner-tube and waited.
Excerpted from Tobacco Road by Erskine Caldwell. Copyright © 1960 Erskine Caldwell. Excerpted by permission of OPEN ROAD INTEGRATED MEDIA.
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Most Helpful Customer Reviews
I read Erskine Caldwell's classic novel recently and was greatly moved by it. Caldwell wastes no time in laying the foundation for his story: the reader knows by the fourth paragraph that one man is so hungry he will walk 7 miles to buy a bag of turnips, and that another man is hungry enough to steal them. 'Tobacco Road' has lately become sort of a catch-all shorthand to describe people who aren't quite as upscale as we think they should be. But anyone who reads this book gets an entirely new view of poverty in America. True, the setting is between the two World Wars, long before Social Security and the New Deal. The grinding poverty that reduces a family to a sub-human level would probably not be seen today. But it's sobering, nonetheless, and still has an impact in the year 2003. The Lesters have none of the quiet nobility of The Joads in Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath. The Lesters are victims of themselves as much as they are victims of 'the system.' Though their circumstances are extreme, relative to what we know today, the root causes (ignorance and self-sabotage) still exist in abundance in America today. Should be required reading.
Written in 1932, Tobacco Road is as valid today as it was then. Humorous, tragic, a story of poverty told from the inside. Erskine Caldwell is wonderfully readable. We seem to have forgotten just how good a writer he is. Should be on everyone's required reading list.
The story offers a look into the life on the Lester family during the Depression. The despair they feel is so evident, and the reader feels for them. However, Jeeter Lester's refusal to move on and try to do something other than farm made me frustrated with him. The book illustrates how bad times were as well as how some people were simply unable to rise up and keep moving. I found myself picture Pa Kettle throughout the book.
I read this book for a college class I took. I opened the book up one morning, with all intentions of just skimming it for class, but once I started I COULD NOT put this book down! I sat down and read it in a few hours because I couldn't believe the story I was reading and wanted to find out what happened. From page one I was captivated by the harrowing story of the Lesters and developed a new understanding of some circumstances involving the depression. Thos book has a certain dark humor to it. This is a must read book and you will not soon forget it!!!
I thought this was a wonderful book. I smoked it away. I t mad me laugh it made me cry I couldn't stand it anymore.
this book was acclaimed as 'fully realistic' and 'funny like Mark Twain' on the back...i have to disagree. i honestly have a hard time believing in a group of people this stupid. i did laugh, once. i almost felt like this was written as a cruel stereotype of southern people...prehaps i just didn't get it.
Is Tobacco Road by Erskine Caldwell meant to be taken seriously or is it a comedic tour de force? I read the book cold-turkey. This is how I like to describe a book in which I lack prior knowledge of plot, characterization, or theme. I merely pick the book up to try a new author or in this case I liked the title.I was halfway through the book before I stopped to read the small bio, brief description, and critic comments located on the back cover. The New York Herald Tribune claims, ¿Mr. Caldwell¿s humor, like Mark Twain¿s, has as its source an imagination that stirs the emotions of the reader.¿Ah, Mark Twain(ish) humor, it is supposed to be funny. That changes everything! The characters and their disregard for human life, other than their own, was a little disheartening to read. Knowing now that it is a farce, allows me to really enjoy the story full of unbelievable characters.Leading the role for most unbelievable is main character, Jeeter, patriarch of the Lester family. Jeeter is all about Jeeter. He even shoos his own mother from the dinner table. Ada, his wife and producer of 17 children, is a quiet woman, but lately, ¿hunger has loosened her tongue,¿ and made her a trite annoying. All of the children except for Dude, 16, and Ellie May, 17, have left home for the big city of Augusta, Georgia and its cotton mills. The youngest child, Pearl, 12, was traded to Lov Bensey for food. Grandmother Lester is allowed to haunt the house as long as she stays out of the way. The family actually wills her to wither and blow away.The book was originally published in 1932, and the timeline is concurrent with the Depression. The Lesters have become sharecroppers on their own original Lester land after Jeeter squanders their assets with fraudulent home loans. As the story opens the family is subsiding on corn meal, snuff, and chicory, while Grandmother Lester forages off the land.I am so thankful this book is comedic in nature. Not, laugh-track, ha-ha funny such as Beverly Hillbillies or Green Acres, but rather a relief these aren¿t real people. The character Elly May Clampett is way more forgiving to the eyes than poor, hair-lipped Ellie May Lester. Oh, and how misleading is the title, where¿s the tobacco?
Initially, I thought this would be a sad tale of misery, like [The Beans of Egypt, Maine], but about 20 pages in, I realized that it is dark comedy. It portrays a family of down-and-out farmers in Georgia, and the community that surrounds them, an extended joke on poor country rubes. If you find desperate poverty, ignorance, failure, disappointment, physical deformity, pedophilia, ageism and cruelty humorous, dig in. I hated it.The book has been compared to [Mark Twain], but what Twain and also [Herman Charles Boseman] wrote about country folks was truly humorous, perhaps because they had a gram of compassion for their characters.
it is difficult to believe there are people this ignorant in the world, but erkine caldwell brings us into their world (not that we want to spend much time in it)and, mostly through narrative repetition, he stamps us there. over and over and over and over again we are told by jeeter all he wants to do is grow crops, bessie wants to get laid, and the grandmother is a non-entity, completely ignored so much that when she is run over by bessie's car, her face mashed in, she is left alone to suffer and die. nobody even walks up and looks at heer! if you don't believe we descended from apes, read caldwell.And for those of you who say this is a farce (quoting some New Yawk times fellow or such), let me tell you it surely is not a farce. It is real as I have met some of the people. Poverty doesn't breed grace, necessarily, nor does scrapping for food bring brotherly love, espite the romantic proclamations of the politically correct.
enjoyed it very much, nicely written tale of poor farmers trying to make ends meet. everytime i read a book like this, i want to kick anyone who talks crap about "southern hillbillies" or things like that.
one of the funniest books ive ever read, i just adored the characters a real must read
I love classics and that is what made me read this book. It was on a library's top 100 books of all time lists. I was so disappointed. The author kept repeating himself. Half this book would be gone if it weren't for the repeating. This book is very strange and that made it somewhat interesting, but the author went too far and I was unable to get into the characters. They were either too repulsive or they just didn't make sense.
Tobacco Road is full of some of the saddest stories and the funniest ones that it has ever been my experience to read in the same novel. Erskine Caldwell¿s powerful portrayal of Georgia sharecropper life during the Depression is one of those magical stories that brings the characters to life in so many and in such moving ways so that they will always be with you. Jeeter Lester¿s personality and weaknesses are at the center of what becomes a uniquely American tragedy. While his father had been a small landowner who grew cotton, all Jeeter inherited was a desire to farm. As a sharecropper, he could eke out a living for his large family during times when cotton prices were high. When they were low, he was lucky to survive. One by one, they have left the farm . . . never to be heard from again. Jeeter has hopes for turning it all around, and the arrival of a new car makes it possible for those hopes to be explored and understood. As the story opens, Jeeter¿s mother still lives with him, as do his wife, Ada, their 18 year-old daughter, Ellie May, and their 16 year-old son, Dude. A son-in-law comes to complain that his 12 year-old wife, nee Pearl Lester, won¿t talk to him or join his bed. But Jeeter¿s empty stomach can only focus on the turnips that his son-in-law, Luv, is carrying. Jeeter¿s tragedy is not limited to the effect of his failings on himself. In his need for money, he has ¿allowed¿ Luv to marry Pearl in exchange for $7. Obviously, Pearl was too young to marry, but Jeeter isn¿t a man to let a little thing like that stop him. His daughter, Ellie May, has a congenital hare lip which could have been repaired . . . except Jeeter just never got organized to do it. But one of these days. To me, the greatness of the novel was that it caused me to think about my own life, and to wonder where I have false hopes, where I have been lulled into inaction or the wrong action out of ignorance, and where my procrastination may have harmed others. Before reading this book, please do consider that there¿s a lot of earthy humor and coarse language here. Some of the callousness towards others as Dude drives Sister Bessie¿s car will leave you speechless. I was left breathless in two instances. Get on with it! Donald Mitchell, co-author of The 2,000 Percent Solution and The Irresistible Growth Enterprise