ISBN-10:
1577666291
ISBN-13:
9781577666295
Pub. Date:
09/10/2009
Publisher:
Waveland Press, Inc.
Tools of Critical Thinking: Metathoughts for Psychology, Second Edition / Edition 2

Tools of Critical Thinking: Metathoughts for Psychology, Second Edition / Edition 2

by David A. Levy

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781577666295
Publisher: Waveland Press, Inc.
Publication date: 09/10/2009
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 320
Product dimensions: 6.90(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

Foreword by Thomas Szasz
Introduction by Robert C. Carson
Part I: CONCEPTUALIZING PHENOMENA
1. The Evaluative Bias of Language: To Describe Is to Prescribe
2. The Reification Error: Comparing Apples and Existentialism
3. Multiple Levels of Description: The Simultaneity of Physical and Psychological Events
4. The Nominal Fallacy and Tautologous Reasoning: To Name Something Isn't to Explain It
5. Differentiating Dichotomous Variables and Continuous Variables: Black and White, or Shades of Grey?
6. Consider the Opposite: To Contrast Is to Define
7. The Similarity-Uniqueness Paradox: All Phenomena Are Both Similar and Different
8. The Naturalistic Fallacy: Blurring the Line between "Is" and "Should"
9. The Barnum Effect: "One-Size-Fits-All" Personality Interpretations
Part II: EXPLAINING PHENOMENA
10. Correlation Does Not Prove Causation: Confusing "What" with "Why"
11. Bidirectional Causation: Causal Loops, Healthy Spirals, and Vicious Cycles
12. Multiple Causation: Not "Either/Or," but "Both/And"
13. Degrees of Causation: Not All Causes Are Created Equal
14. Multiple Pathways of Causation: Different Causes, Same Effect
Part III: COMMON MISATTRIBUTIONS
15. The Fundamental Attribution Error: Underestimating the Impact of External Influences
16. The Intervention-Causation Fallacy: When the Cure Doesn't Prove the Cause
17. The Consequence-Intentionality Fallacy: The Effect Doesn't Prove the Intent
18. The "If I Feel It, It Must Be True" Fallacy: The Truth Hurts; But So Do Lies
19. The Spectacular Explanation Fallacy: Extraordinary Events Do Not Require Extraordinary Causes
Part Four: INVESTIGATING PHENOMENA
20.Deductive and Inductive Reasoning: Two Methods of Inference
21. Reactivity: To Observe Is to Disturb
22. The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: When Expectations Create Reality
23. The Assimilation Bias: Viewing the World through Schema-Colored Glasses
24. The Confirmation Bias: Ye Shall Find Only What Ye Shall Seek
25. The Belief Perseverance Effect: The Rat Is Always Right
26. The Hindsight Bias: Predicting a Winner after the Race Is Finished
Part Five: OTHER BIASES AND FALLACIES IN THINKING
27. The Representativeness Bias: Fits and Misfits of Categorization
28. The Availability Bias: The Persuasive Power of Vivid Events
29. The Insight Fallacy: To Understand It Isn't Necessarily to Change It
Part Six: CONCLUSIONS
30. Every Decision Is a Trade-Off: Take Stock of Pluses and Minuses
Epilogue: Concluding Meta-Metathoughts
Metathoughts Summary and Antidote Table
Appendix 1: A Proposed Category for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM): Pervasive Labeling Disorder
Appendix 2: The Emperor's Postmodern Clothes: A Brief Guide to Deconstructing Academically Fashionable Phrases for the Uninitiated
Appendix 3: Consider the Opposite (Metathought VI)
Appendix 4: Sociocultural Barnum Statements (Metathought IX)
Appendix 5: Selected Answers to Chapter Exercises
Glossary

What People are Saying About This

Shelley E. Taylor

"Educators have criticized today's students for their poor reasoning skills and faulty problem-solving abilities. Levy's book will go considerable distance in closing these gaps by taking established scientific principles and making them accessible, useful, and entertaining!"--(Shelley E. Taylor, University of California at Los Angeles)

Robert C. Carson

"David Levy has condensed both the wisdom of the ages and the findings of contemporary psychological science into a manageable set of principles (Metathoughts) that will notably improve the general quality of thought not only in clinical psychology and cognate areas but also across the broad expanse of scholarly and scientific endeavor."--(Robert C. Carson, Duke University)

Elizabeth F. Loftus

"A remarkable book that masterfully teaches how to make us better at solving problems, at understanding events, at making decisions, and even at being creative. Read, learn, and have a good time doing it."--(Elizabeth F. Loftus, University of Washington)

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