In late nineteenth-century Toronto, municipal politics were so dominated by the Irish Protestants of the Orange Order that the city was known as the “Belfast of Canada.” For almost a century, virtually every mayor of Toronto was an Orangeman and the anniversary of the Battle of the Boyne was a civic holiday. Toronto, the Belfast of Canada explores the intolerant origins of today’s cosmopolitan city.
Using lodge membership lists, census data, and municipal records, William J. Smyth details the Orange Order’s role in creating Toronto’s municipal culture of militant Protestantism, loyalism, and monarchism. One of Canada’s foremost experts on the Orange Order, Smyth analyses the Orange Order’s influence between 1850 and 1950, the city’s frequent public displays of sectarian tensions, and its occasional bouts of rioting and mayhem.
|Publisher:||University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division|
|Sold by:||Barnes & Noble|
|File size:||6 MB|
About the Author
Table of Contents
1. Canada and Ireland: Toronto and Belfast. The Imperial Context
2. A Tale of Two Cities: Belfast and Toronto
3. Toronto Orangeism: The Nature and Structure of The Orange Order
4. Power, Patronage and Public Employment within the Protestant City, 1850–1920
5. The Emergence of a New Order: Toronto's Orangemen at the Close of The Nineteenth Century
6. The Climax and Onset of Decline of the Orange Order, 1900–1940
7. The Faded Sash: Toronto and Orangeism, 1940–c.1950
What People are Saying About This
“Toronto, the Belfast of Canada is grounded in a rich analysis of documentary, statistical, journalistic, and institutional sources. It provides a great deal of insight into the realpolitic of Toronto and the complex ethnic underpinnings of an evolving cultural identity.”