These proceedings are the fifth in the series Traffic and Granular Flow, and we hope they will be as useful a reference as their predecessors. Both the realistic modelling of granular media and traffic flow present important challenges at the borderline between physics and engineering, and enormous progress has been made since 1995, when this series started. Still the research on these topics is thriving, so that this book again contains many new results. Some highlights addressed at this conference were the influence of long range electric and magnetic forces and ambient fluids on granular media, new precise traffic measurements, and experiments on the complex decision making of drivers. No doubt the “hot topics” addressed in granular matter research have diverged from those in traffic since the days when the obvious analogies between traffic jams on highways and dissipative clustering in granular flow intrigued both c- munities alike. However, now just this diversity became a stimulating feature of the conference. Many of us feel that our joint interest in complex systems, where many simple agents, be it vehicles or particles, give rise to surprising and fascin- ing phenomena, is ample justification for bringing these communities together: Traffic and Granular Flow has fostered cooperation and friendship across the scientific disciplines.
|Publisher:||Springer Berlin Heidelberg|
|Edition description:||Softcover reprint of hardcover 1st ed. 2005|
|Product dimensions:||6.69(w) x 9.53(h) x 0.38(d)|
Table of ContentsEmpirical Traffic Data.- Lane-Change Maneuvers Consuming Freeway Capacity.- Empirical Description of Car-Following.- Optimization Potential of a Highway Network: An Empirical Study.- Observation, Theory and Experiment for Freeway Traffic as Physics of Many-Body System.- Fluctuation in Expressway Traffic Flow.- Calibration and Validation of Microscopic Traffic Flow Models.- Real Highway Traffic Simulations Based on a Cellular Automata Model.- Traffic Data Collection and Study with the BirdEye System.- Traffic Models and Theory.- Probabilistic Traffic Flow Breakdown in Stochastic Car Following Models.- A Wave-Based Resolution Scheme for the Hydrodynamic LWR Traffic Flow Model.- Various Scales for Traffic Flow Representation: Some Reflections.- Comparison of Congested Pattern Features at Different Freeway Bottlenecks.- Congestion Due to Merging Roads: Predictions of Three-Phase Traffic Theory.- Production, Supply, and Traffic Systems: A Unified Description.- Capacity Funnel Explained Using the Human-Kinetic Traffic Flow Model.- A Comparison of a Cellular Automaton and a Macroscopic Model.- Stochastic Description of Traffic Breakdown: Langevin Approach.- Towards Noised-Induced Phase Transitions in Systems of Elements with Motivated Behavior.- Using the Road Traffic Simulation “SUMO” for Educational Purposes.- Approximating Traffic Flow by a Schrödinger Equation - Introduction of Non-Reflecting Boundary Conditions.- Modeling and Managing Traffic Flow Through Hyperbolic Conservation Laws.- Conservation Versus Balance Laws in Traffic Flow.- Introducing the Effects of Slow Vehicles in a LWR Two-Flow Traffic Model.- Bifurcation Analysis of Meta-Stability and Waves of the OV Model.- Pinch Effect in a Cellular Automaton (CA) Model for Traffic Flow.- Traffic Networks and Driver’s Behaviour.- Intersection Modeling, Application to Macroscopic Network Traffic Flow Models and Traffic Management.- Granular Transport Policy Is Cooperation Better than Optimization?.- Real-Time Motorway Network Traffic Surveillance Tool RENAISSANCE.- Minority Game - Experiments and Simulations.- Experimental Investigation of a Two Route Scenario with Construction Areas.- Phase Diagrams of an Internet Model with Multi-Allocation of Sites.- Adaptive Traffic Light Control in the ChSch Model for City Traffic.- Vehicle Flow and Phase Transitions in Traffic Networks.- Pedestrian Dynamics.- Anomalous Fundamental Diagrams in Traffic on Ant Trails.- Models for Crowd Movement and Egress Simulation.- Self-Organization in Pedestrian Flow.- A Comparison of Video and Infrared Based Tracking of Pedestrian Movements.- Statistical Analysis of the Panic in the Pedestrian Flow.- Group Formation of Organisms in 2-Dimensional OV Model.- Simulations of Evacuation by an Extended Floor Field CA Model.- Pedestrian Pulse Dispersion in an Underground Station.- Population and Distance Criteria for Pedestrian Decisions.- Simulation of the Evacuation of a Football Stadium Using the CA Model PedGo.- Granular.- Statistical Properties of Dense Granular Matter.- Small Scale Modelling of Large Granular Systems in a Centrifuge.- Weakly Frictional Granular Gases.- The Physics of Overcharging.- Computer Simulations of Magnetic Grains.- Simulation of Particle Transport and Structure Formation by Deposition.- Experiment and Simulation of Electrospray Particle-Flows for Controlled Release of Drugs.- The Branly Effect and Contacting Grains in a Packing.- Universal Wide Shear Zones in Granular Bulk Flow.- Numerical Stress Response Functions of Static Granular Layers.- Granular Segregation in Hydraulic Ripples.- Grain Motion Under Air Flow.- Bubble and Granular Flows : Differences and Similarities.- The Global Property of the Dilute-to-Dense Transition of Granular Flows in a 2D Channel.- From Granular Flux Model to Traffic Flow Description.- Simple Models for Compartmentalized Sand.- Several Numerical Approaches of Granular Flows Applied to Inclined Plane Studies.- A Modified Tetris Model Including the Effect of Friction.- An Aspect of Granulence in View of Multifractal Analysis.