Training in Organizations: Needs Assessment, Development and Evaluation

Training in Organizations: Needs Assessment, Development and Evaluation

by Irwin L. Goldstein, J. Kevin Ford

Paperback(2nd ed)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780534056049
Publisher: Brooks/Cole
Publication date: 12/01/1985
Edition description: 2nd ed
Pages: 311

Table of Contents

About the Authorsxix
Information on the Internetxxi
Part 1Needs Assessment and the Learning Environment
Chapter 1The Training Context1
Scope of the Instructional Process2
What Do We Know about Trainers?3
What Do We Know about Types of Training and Training Methods?4
Training Challenges9
The Changing Workplace and Workforce11
Changes in Demographics of Entry-Level Persons in the Workforce11
Increasing Job Complexity13
Shifts from Manufacturing to Service Jobs14
Organizations and Global Markets15
Implications for Future Workplace Training Systems15
The Problem of Youth with a Skill Gap16
Changes in Technology16
Concern for Maximizing Individual Worker Potential17
Managerial Training Implications of a Competitive Environment18
Training as a Subsystem20
Chapter 2A Systematic Approach to Training22
Assessment Phase24
Assessing Training Needs24
Deriving Instructional Objectives27
Training and Development Phase28
Choosing a Training Environment28
Trainee Characteristics29
Learning Principles29
Contextual Factors30
Evaluation Phase30
Instructional Techniques and Training Methods32
Chapter 3The Needs Assessment Phase34
Organizational Support for the Needs Assessment Process37
Establishing a Relationship with Top-Level Management39
Establishing a Relationship with Members of the Organization40
Organizational Analysis41
Specifying Goals41
Determining the Organizational Training Climate43
Identifying External and Legal Constraints46
Resource Analysis48
Requirements Analysis49
Understanding the Job in the Context of the Organization50
Defining the Target Job51
Choosing the Methods for Conducting a Needs Assessment51
Determining the Participants in the Needs Assessment Process53
Determining the Points of Contact in the Organization57
Anticipating Problems to Be Resolved57
Developing a Protocol58
Task and Knowledge, Skill, and Ability Analysis59
Developing Task Statements59
Determining Task Clusters62
Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities and Psychological Fidelity64
Developing Knowledge, Skill, and Ability Analysis64
Determining Relevant Task and KSA Characteristics68
Linking of Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities to Tasks72
Person Analysis75
Developing Performance Indicators75
Determining KSA Gaps and Developing Approaches to Resolve Them76
Summarizing the Needs Assessment Phase77
Examples of Needs Assessment Methods and Techniques78
Content-Oriented Job Analysis78
Strategic Job Analysis and Strategic Training80
Chapter 4The Learning Environment85
Instructional Design88
What Is to Be Learned?88
Learning Outcomes88
Stages of Learning89
Expert-Novice Differences92
Implications of Cognitive Learning Approaches for Training Needs Assessment96
Building Effective Instruction98
From Training Objectives to a Plan of Instruction99
Incorporating Learning Principles104
Automaticity and Overlearning106
Production of the Response107
Advanced Organizers108
Massed versus Spaced Practice108
Whole versus Part Learning109
Trainee Issues110
Trainee Readiness111
Trainee Motivation to Learn115
Motivational Theories120
Social Learning Theory120
Goal Setting122
Expectancy Theory123
Reinforcement Theory124
Equity Theory125
Need Theory125
The Conditions of Transfer126
Classical Approach to Transfer128
The Work Context and Transfer132
Part 2Evaluation
Chapter 5The Criterion Choices: Introduction to the Evaluation Process138
Barriers and Contributions in the Evaluation Process138
Values and the Evaluation Process142
Introduction to Criterion Development143
Choosing the Criterion Measures143
The Evaluation of Criteria145
Criterion Relevancy145
Criterion Deficiency148
Criterion Contamination149
Criterion Reliability150
Other Considerations151
The Many Dimensions of Criteria151
Levels of Criteria152
The Interrelationship of Reaction, Learning, Behavior, and Results161
A Conceptually Based Classification Scheme of Learning164
Outcome Criteria and Summative Evaluation: Process Criteria and Formative Evaluation166
Time Dimension168
Types of Criteria169
Criterion- and Norm-Referenced Measures169
Objective and Subjective Measures171
Chapter 6Evaluation Procedures177
Views of the Evaluation Process178
Phases of the Evaluation Process178
Methodological Considerations in the Use of Experimental Designs179
Pretesting and Posttesting179
Control Groups179
Internal and External Validity180
Threats to Internal Validity181
Internal Validity and Intervention Threats183
Threats to External Validity184
Experimental Design186
Preexperimental Designs187
Research Example of Preexperimental Designs188
Experimental Designs191
Research Example of Experimental Designs193
Quasi-Experimental Designs194
Research Example of Quasi-Experimental Designs--Time Series195
Research Example of Quasi-Experimental Designs--Nonequivalent Control-Group Design199
Utility Considerations201
Other Methods of Evaluation205
Individual-Differences Models of Predictive Validity205
Content-Validity Models208
Practical, Statistical, and Scientific Significance214
From Needs Assessment to Training Validity: Some Concluding Words215
Intra-organizational Validity217
Inter-organizational Validity218
Part 3Instructional Approaches
Chapter 7Training Delivery: Traditional Instructional Approaches and Emerging Learning Technologies220
Traditional Instructional Approaches222
Classroom Instruction223
Self-Directed Learning Programs231
Readings, Workbooks, and Correspondence Courses231
Programmed Instruction232
Simulated Work Settings236
Reasons for Using Training Simulators236
Fidelity Issues240
Simulator Designed to Facilitate Training Transfer242
Effective Instruction244
Role of the Trainer244
Characteristics of Good Trainers245
Emerging Training Technologies249
Distance Learning251
CD-ROM and Interactive Multimedia252
Web-based Instruction257
Intelligent Tutoring Systems260
Virtual Reality Training264
Chapter 8A Variety of Training Interventions and Learning Experiences271
Building Employee Capabilities274
Employee Orientation275
Newcomer Socialization276
On-the-Job Training281
Embedded Training286
Performance Support Systems287
Enterprise Training289
Building Team Effectiveness290
Cross Training295
Interpositional Training296
Team Self-Management297
Challenge Education and Adventure Learning299
Action Learning302
Developing Leaders305
Business Simulations305
Behavioral Role Modeling and Applied Learning308
Assessment Centers and Multirater Feedback313
Experience-Centered Learning317
Global Leadership320
Chapter 9Learning Systems328
A Systems Perspective328
Training and the Learning Organization331
Fundamental Characteristics of a Learning Organization332
Models for Becoming a Learning Organization334
Challenges to Becoming a Learning Organization342
Training and Societal Concerns343
Increasing Workforce Readiness344
Ensuring Fainess and Enhancing Opportunity at Work352
Retraining Workers Given Changing Markets359
Author Index397
Subject Index407

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