The transport of farm livestock was the subject of the seminar held from 7 - 8 July 1981 at the Commission of the European Communities (CECl, Directorate General for Agriculture, Brussels as part of the work of the Division Coordinating Agricultural Research. The aims of the seminar were to examine the knowledge available on how the physiology and behaviour of animals may change during transport; to consider the significance of these changes in relation to welfare and economics and to assess those actions which as experimental projects or observational studies might be proposed to fill the most important gaps in our knowledge of the welfare of farm animals during transport. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the proceedings: 1. Much knowledge is available from both scientific observations and practical experience which could be used to improve the transport of livestock. Methods of loading, the construction of vehicles, ships, crates and aircraft could benefit from the application of existing knowledge. It is less clear whether it is best to concentrate on disseminating existing knowledge by education and advice or to contemplate more regulations. 2. Losses by down-grading at slaughter can largely be attributed to the ways in which animals are transported and handled.
Table of ContentsSession I: Introduction.- Council of Europe Convention on Transport of Livestock, EC Council Directive on Protection of Animals during International Transport.- Discussion.- The Office of International Epizootics (OIE) and the International Air Transport Association (IATA).- Discussion.- Session II: Physiological Changes Induced in Animals at Loading, during and after Transport and Their Effects: Including Behavioural Changes.- Handling of Slaughter Pigs Prior to Loading and during Loading on a Lorry.- Discussion.- Transport of Broilers.- Discussion.- Injuries during Catching and Transportation of Broilers.- Discussion.- Various Transport Conditions and Their Influence on Physiological Reactions.- Discussion.- Physiology of the Transport of Cattle.- Discussion.- Physiological Response of Pigs to Treadmill Exercise Used as a Standardised Stress.- Discussion.- Behaviour of Cattle during Transport and Penning Before Slaughter.- Discussion.- Session III: Significance of These Changes and Effects in Relation to Health and Well-Being.- Losses Caused by Transport of Slaughter Pigs in the Netherlands.- Discussion.- Recent Results from Investigations of Transportation of Pigs for Slaughter.- Discussion.- Physiological Reaction of Slaughter Animals during Transport.- Discussion.- Session IV: Means of Transport, with Particular Reference to Their Construction.- Transport of Day Old Chicks by Air.- Discussion.- Bulk Transportation of Farm Animals by Air and Vehicular Ferries.- Transportation of Sheep by Ship from Australia to the Middle East.- Discussion.- Bulk Transport of Livestock by Sea with Particular Reference to Instruction, Procedure and Problems.- Discussion.- Session V: Present Research Being Undertaken and Consideration of What Further Studies, If Any, would be Desirable.- Transport of Animals Intended for Breeding Production and Slaughter.- Discussion.- Research on Transport Stress at Arc Bristol.- Discussion.- Research on Farm Animal Transport in France: A Survey.- Discussion.- Final Discussion.- List of Participants.