This guidance describes how to complete quantitative hot-spot analyses for certain highway and transit projects in PM2.5 and PM10 (PM) nonattainment and maintenance areas. This guidance describes transportation conformity requirements for hot-spot analyses, and provides technical guidance on estimating project emissions with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) MOVES model, California's EMFAC model, and other methods. It also outlines how to apply air quality models for PM hot-spot analyses and includes additional references and examples. However, the guidance does not change the specific transportation conformity rule requirements for quantitative PM hot-spot analyses, such as what projects require these analyses. EPA has coordinated with the Department of Transportation (DOT) during the development of this guidance. Transportation conformity is required under Clean Air Act (CAA) section 176(c) (42 U.S.C. 7506(c)) to ensure that federally supported highway and transit project activities are consistent with (conform to) the purpose of a state air quality implementation plan (SIP). Conformity to the purpose of the SIP means that transportation activities will not cause or contribute to new air quality violations, worsen existing violations, or delay timely attainment of the relevant national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) or required interim milestones. EPA's transportation conformity rule (40 CFR 51.390 and Part 93) establishes the criteria and procedures for determining whether transportation activities conform to the SIP. Conformity applies to transportation activities in nonattainment and maintenance areas for transportation-related pollutants, including PM2.5 and PM10. This guidance is consistent with existing regulations and guidance for the PM NAAQS, SIP development, and other regulatory programs as applicable.