Treatment of Cerebral Palsy and Motor Delay / Edition 4

Treatment of Cerebral Palsy and Motor Delay / Edition 4

by Sophie Levitt
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Treatment of Cerebral Palsy and Motor Delay / Edition 4

Treatment of Cerebral Palsy and Motor Delay is first and foremost a practical book, a distillation of Sophie Levitt’s considerable experience in treating those affected by cerebral palsy. This fifth edition outlines therapeutic approaches and suggests treatment and management options, providing a wealth of practical information, supported by clear diagrams and photographs, on assessment, management and treatment.  The book emphasises an eclectic, holistic approach, and integrates current ideas on motor control and motor learning in a further development of Levitt’s Collaborative Learning Approach.  This new edition provides greater commentary on evidence-based practice, as well as practical, updated information on the use of botulinum toxin, orthopaedic surgery and the therapist's role following these procedures.
The book is aimed primarily at practitioners and students concerned with the developmental abilities and difficulties of children, particularly physiotherapists and occupational therapists working in paediatrics. Doctors and other healthcare professionals will also find useful insights in the book. Parents, families and also teachers of people with cerebral palsy can learn more about therapy by consulting the book together with their therapist.

  • Written by an international authority in the field
  • Extensively revised, updated and well referenced
  • Emphasises an eclectic, functional and holistic approach
  • Highly illustrated
  • Promotes positive relationships between therapists, people with cerebral palsy and their families

From the Foreword:

"I greatly welcome the fifth edition of this book which brings together the management of cerebral palsies into a comprehensive but readable form… This book is in my view an essential part of both a therapist’s and doctor’s basic understanding of the subject… This book remains essential for those managing children with disability." —Brian Neville, Professor of Childhood Epilepsy, Professor of Paediatric Neurology, University College London, Institute of Child Health/Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781405101639
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 07/15/2003
Edition description: REV
Pages: 336
Product dimensions: 7.50(w) x 9.70(h) x 0.76(d)

Table of Contents

Foreword vi

Preface vii

Acknowledgements xi

1 The clinical picture for therapy and management 1

The motor dysfunction 1

Associated impairments and disabilities 2

Aetiology 3

Clinical picture and development 3

Classification 5

Spastic cerebral palsy 6

Athetoid (dyskinetic, dystonic) cerebral palsy 8

Ataxic cerebral palsy 9

Common features in all types of cerebral palsies 10

Motor delay 11

Principles of learning and therapy 12

Summary 13

2 A collaborative learning approach 15

Working with parents 15

Collaboration with other adults 16

The collaborative learning approach 17

Opportunities to discover what parents and child want to achieve 18

Opportunities to clarify what is needed for these achievements, to recognise what they already know and can do and to find out what they still need to learn and do 19

Participation in the selection and use of methods 21

Participation in the evaluation of progress 23

Parent-child interaction 24

Helping a child to learn motor control 25

Observation of parent and child interaction 25

Emotional support 26

Parents' health 27

Teamwork with parents 27

Siblings 29

Records 29

Alternative and complementary treatments 30

Contraindications 31

Summary 31

3 Outline of treatment approaches 34

Muscle education and braces 34

Progressive pattern movements 36

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitations (PNF) 37

Neuromotor development 38

Neurodevelopmental treatment (Bobath approach) 39

Sensory stimulation for activation and inhibition 40

Reflex creeping and other reflex reactions 40

Conductive education 41

Sensory integration 42

Adjuncts to therapy 42

Systems-based task-oriented approach 46

Mobility opportunities via education (MOVE) 47

Contemporary theories 47

4 Evidence-based practice 51

Research and clinical studies 51

Research on treatment approaches 51

Theoretical grounds 51

Research studies 52

Reviews of research studies 52

Studies of specific treatment systems 53

Research on specific procedures 54

Other research 54

Clinical experience with evidence-based practice 55

The appraisal of research studies for therapy 57

5 Synthesis of treatment systems 61

The eclectic viewpoint in therapy 61

Synthesis of treatment systems 62

The postural mechanisms 63

Voluntary motion 65

Perceptual-motor function 66

principles for a synthesis of therapy systems 67

Developmental training 67

Treatment of abnormal tone 71

Training of movement patterns 73

Use of afferent stimuli 73

Management of deformity 75

6 Learning motor function 76

Learning methods 77

The development of a child's attention and learning 79

Practical ideas to promote attention and learning 79

Learning a motor function 79

A child's own goals and strategies 80

Task analysis 81

Cues for learning 81

Verbal guidance 83

Rewards 84

Practice and experience 84

Summary 85

7 The older person with cerebral palsy 86

Role of the physiotherapist and occupational therapist 87

Studies of function 87

Issues of concern in the older person 88

Motor abilities and-self-care activities 89

Deformities 90

Healthy lifestyle 92

Develop appropriate community mobility 93

Training of self-care and cosmetic appearance 93

Knowledge about the condition 93

Therapeutic motor activities 94

Measures 94

8 Assessment for therapy and daily function 95

Approach to assessment 95

Assessment and measurements 98

Specific functional items 109

Measures of upper extremity and hand function 110

Methods of observation of gait 112

Grading in assessments 113

Additional assessment required 114

Records 123

Summary 124

9 Treatment procedures and management 125

Motor training 125

Motor development and the child with severe visual impairment 129

Prone development 134

Supine development 154

Development of sitting 167

Development of standing and walking 195

Abnormal postures in standing 201

Lower limb orthoses for standing and walking 224

Development of hand function 233

10 Motor function and the child's daily life 260

Motor function in feeding, dressing, toileting, washing, bathing, play and communication 260

Motor function and perception 262

Motor function and communication, speech and language 264

Development of communication - brief summary 264

Development of feeding - brief summary 266

Development of dressing - brief summary 272

Development of play - brief outline 273

Techniques for carrying the child correctly 273

11 Management of deformity 275

Causes of deformities and aims of therapy and management 276

Deformities and gait 282

Therapy and daily care 285

Review of deformities 296

Arm deformity 303

Deformities of trunk and neck 303

General considerations related to surgery 304

Pre-operative physiotherapy 304

Post-operative physiotherapy and care 304

12 Therapeutic group work 306

General management of groups 308

Selection of children 308

The programme 310

Summary 311

Appendix 1 Developmental levels 312

Physical ability assessment guide 314

Prone 314

Supine 314

Sitting 314

Standing and walking 315

Wheelchair use 316

Appendix 2 Equipment 317

Basic equipment 317

Aids to activities of daily living 320

General 321

References 322

Index 340

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