Tribology is basically defined as the study of friction, wear, lubrication, and the design of bearings; the science of interacting surfaces in relative motion. The objective of compiling this book was to present modern concepts, new discoveries and innovative ideas in the area of surface engineering, primarily for technical operations, and also in the area of production engineering and to stress some difficulties connected with the usage of several surface procedures in modern manufacturing of various purpose machine parts. This book is an effort to introduce science into the study of surface treatment procedures. Tribology presents a good approach for explaining abrasive machining and coating procedures and provides the ability to predict some of the outputs of the procedures. The study of friction, forces and energy investigates the significance of several factors which govern the stresses and deformations of abrasion. The impacts of grain shape, extent of penetration and lubrication on the procedures are investigated. The tribology of nanostructured surfaces includes several basic and scientific topics. Most importantly, it has immense operations in industries. It is a powerful device to check friction, adhesion and wetting of surfaces by changing their geometric textures and substance compositions at the nanoscale, and hence, to control the tribological performance of the engineering surfaces.