Truly Divine and Truly Human: The Story of Christ and the Seven Ecumenical Councils

Truly Divine and Truly Human: The Story of Christ and the Seven Ecumenical Councils

by Stephen W Need

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780801047299
Publisher: Baker Publishing Group
Publication date: 05/01/2008
Pages: 208
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.60(d)

About the Author

Stephen W. Need has taught New Testament studies and early Christianity in England and Jerusalem. He has traveled widely in the Middle East and is currently dean of St. George's College, Jerusalem.

Table of Contents


List of illustrations     xi
Introduction     xiii
In the beginning: The titles of Jesus     1
Lord, Saviour, Son of God, Son of Man and Christ     2
Wisdom and Word     9
Conclusion     14
A tale of two cities: Antioch and Alexandria     17
Antioch and Alexandria     18
Antioch     22
Alexandria     24
The philosophical background     26
Biblical interpretation     29
Representative thinkers: Theodore of Mopsuestia and Origen     31
Salvation     35
Conclusion     37
There was when he was not: The Council of Nicaea (325 CE)     41
Constantine the Great     42
Arius and Athanasius     44
Nicaea     48
The Council of Nicaea     48
The Creed of Nicaea     52
The Melitian Schism     56
Celebrating Easter     57
The canons of Nicaea     58
Conclusion     60
Of a rational soul and a body: The Council of Constantinople (381 CE)     63
Constantinople     64
The Holy Spirit     66
The Cappadocian Fathers     67
Apollinarius of Laodicea     71
The Council of Constantinople     72
The filioque clause     76
The canons of Constantinople     77
Conclusion     78
Holy Mary, Mother of God? The Council of Ephesus (431 CE)     81
Nestorius     82
Mary     84
Cyril of Alexandria     86
Ephesus     88
The Council of Ephesus     90
Conclusion     92
Truly divine and truly human: The Council of Chalcedon (451 CE)     93
After Ephesus     94
Chalcedon     96
The Council of Chalcedon     98
The Chalcedonian Definition     100
Juvenal's about-turn     104
The canons of Chalcedon     105
Conclusion     107
Natures, energies and wills: Two councils of Constantinople (553 and 680-1 CE)     109
After Chalcedon     110
Severus of Antioch     112
Jacob Baradaeus     115
Justinian and Theodora     116
The Second Council of Constantinople     118
Monenergism and Monothelitism     120
Maximus the Confessor     123
The Third Council of Constantinople     125
Conclusion     127
Icons and idols: The Second Council of Nicaea (787 CE)     129
Icons and iconoclasm     130
John of Damascus     133
The Second Council of Nicaea     136
Theodore the Studite     138
The canons of Nicaea II     141
Conclusion     143
The councils today: Positions and prospects     145
Christology, language and salvation     146
Churches and councils     148
Ecumenical statements     151
The councils and modern Christology     154
Conclusion     156
The seven ecumenical councils     159
Chronology of major figures     161
Glossary     163
Bibliography and further reading     171
Index     177

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