The first Optical Society of America (OSA) Topical Meeting on Picosec ond Phenomena, held at Hilton Head, South Carolina, in 1978, brought together in a congenial setting an interdisciplinary group of laser engineers and physicists who were exploring the emerging technologies for generat ing and applying picosecond optical pulses, together with scientists from the fields of chemistry, physics, biology, and electronics who saw in those pulses capabilities for studying atomic and molecular phenomena on time scales previously unrealizable. The technology in this field has since developed even more rapidly and remarkably than foreseen eight years ago, and the applications to science and technology, in physics, chemistry, biology, electronics, and commu nications, have proven to be equally extraordinary. Optical pulses with pulse widths shorter than 10 femtosecond - only a few optical cycles in du ration - along with mono cycle infrared pulses, complex nonlinear optical solitons, electrooptic techniques with subpicosecond time resolutions, and a full toolkit of measurement and detection techniques have now emerged, including new methods for making ultrafast measurements in some cases even without ultrafast optical pulses. These tools are now being widely applied to study the internal motions of complex molecules and atomic lat tices, the relaxation times of superheated electrons in solids, the ultrafast dynamics of chemical reactions, the excited-state lifetimes of photosyn thetic and visual pigments, and the response times of the fastest electronic circuits yet developed.
Table of ContentsI Mode Locking and Ultrashort Pulse Generation.- Passive and Hybrid Femtosecond Operation of a Linear Astigmatism Compensated Dye Laser.- Generation of 55-fs Pulses and Variable Spectral Windowing in a Linear-Cavity Synchronously Pumped cw Dye Laser.- Cavity-Mirror Dispersion Dependence of Pulse Duration Generated from a Simple CPM Laser: An Experimental Study.- Femtosecond Pulse Generation from Passively Mode Locked Continuous Wave Dye Lasers 550–700 nm.- Stabilisation of a CPM Dye Laser Synchronously Pumped by a Frequency Doubled ML YAG Laser.- Fluctuations and Chirp in Colliding-Pulse Mode-Locked Dye Lasers.- Experimental Observation of High Order Solitons in a Colliding Pulse Mode-Locked Laser.- Advances in the Theory of Mode-Locking by Synchronous Pumping.- Collective Modes An Analytical Model for Active Mode Locking in the Transient Case.- Generation of Picosecond Pulses from a Continuous Wave Neodymium:Phosphate Glass Laser.- II Ultrafast Optical Generation and Measurement Techniques.- Fourier Transform Picosecond Pulse Shaping and Spectral Phase Measurement in a Grating Pulse-Compressor.- Picosecond Pulse Amplification Using Pulse Compression Techniques.- New Optical Design for a Jet Amplifier.- Fiber Raman Amplification Soliton Laser (FRASL).- Dispersion Compensated Fiber Raman Oscillator.- 80-fs Soliton-like Pulses from an Optical Nonlinear Fiber Resonator.- The Stabilized Soliton Laser.- The Soliton Self Frequency Shift.- Solitons at the Zero Dispersion Wavelength of Single-Mode Fibers.- Active Mode-Locking of an InGaAsP Optical-Fiber Ring Laser.- Femtosecond Resolved Fluorescence.- Parametric Amplification Sampling Spectroscopy (PASS): A New Technique for Resolving Near-Infrared Luminescence on a Subpicosecond Time Scale.- Measurement of Optical Phase with Subpicosecond Resolution by Time Domain Interferometry.- Real Time Picosecond Optical Oscilloscope.- Beam Overlap for Long Delay Lines Using Active Feedback.- Ultrashort Dye Laser Pulses Using the Sweeping Oscillator Method.- An Investigation on Ultrashort Light Pulse Generation by Travelling-Wave Amplified Spontaneous Emission.- III Electrooptic Sampling Techniques.- Electrooptic Sampling of Gallium Arsenide Integrated Circuits.- Picosecond Characterization of Ultrafast Phenomena: New Devices and New Techniques.- Precise Measurement of Signal Propagation Characteristics in GaAs Integrated Circuits by Picosecond Electro-Optic Sampling.- Propagation of Ultrashort Electrical Pulses on Superconducting Transmission Lines.- High Repetition Rate Electro-Optic Sampling with an Injection Laser.- Picosecond Optoelectronic Sampling of Electrical Waveforms Produced by an Optically Excited Field Effect Transistor.- Picosecond Electrical Pulses in Microelectronics.- High Speed Circuit Measurements Using Photoemission Sampling.- Photoemissive Sampling of Picosecond Electrical Waveforms.- Nonlinear Responses of Picosecond Photodetectors to Photogenerated Carriers.- Direct Generation of Picosecond to Subpicosecond Optical Pulses Using Electrooptic Modulation Methods.- Elimination of Dynamic Flash in a Picosecond Streak Image Tube.- IV Nonlinear Optics and Continuum Generation.- Parametric Chirp Reversal and Enhancement: Application in Femtosecond Optics.- Supercontinuum Generation in Gases: A High Order Nonlinear Optics Phenomenon.- New Excitation and Probe Continuum Sources for Subpicosecond Absorption Spectroscopy.- Induced Phase Modulation and Spectral Broadening of a Weak 530-nm Picosecond Pulse by an Intense 1060-nm Picosecond Pulse in Glass.- The Observation of Chirped Stimulated Raman Scattered Light in Fibers.- Observation of 7.2-THz Beats Between the D-Lines of Atomic Rb.- Coherent Multiphoton Resonant Interaction and Harmonic Generation.- Ultrafast Chaos from Semiconductor Lasers.- V Applications to Semiconductors, Quantum Wells, and Solid State Physics.- Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Melting, Evaporation and Crystallization, Induced by Picosecond Pulsed Laser Irradiation.- Investigation of Nonthermal Population Distributions with 10-fs Optical Pulses.- Superheating During Ultrafast Laser Heating of Semiconductors.- Non-equilibrium Carriers in GaAs: Secondary Emission During the First Two Picoseconds.- Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in GaAs and AlxGa1?xAs.- Subpicosecond Optical Non-linearities in GaAs Multiple-Quantum-Well Structures.- Picosecond Relaxation of Nonthermal Wannier Excitons in GaAs.- Picosecond Observation of the Photorefractive Effect in GaAs.- Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Measurements in AlxGa1?xAs Under Intense Picosecond Excitation.- Picosecond Excite-Probe and Transient Grating Studies of GaxIn1?xAsyP1?y.- Ultrafast Dynamics in GaAlAs Diode Laser Amplifiers.- Electronic Energy Relaxation and Localization in Two II-VI Compound Semiconductor Quantum Well Structures.- Transient Raman Scattering in Multiple Quantum Well Structures.- Fast Energy Relaxation of Hot Electrons in Bulk GaAs and Multi-Quantum Wells.- Picosecond Photoluminescence and Energy-Loss Rates in GaAs Quantum Wells Under High-Density Excitation.- Broad Tuning of the Photoluminescence Energy and Lifetime by the Quantum-Confined Stark Effect.- Auger Heating of Silicon-oil-Sapphire by Femtosecond Optical Pulses.- The Origin of Picosecond Photoinduced Absorption Decays in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon.- Picosecond Decay of Photoinduced Absorption in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon.- Femtosecond Spectroscopy of Hot Carriers in Germanium.- Spin Dephasing Kinetics of Free Carriers in Alloy Semimagnetic Semiconductors Cd1?xMnxSe by One and Two Photon Excitation.- Detection of Higher Order Fourier Components of Index Gratings in Picosecond Transient Grating Experiments.- Transient Thermoreflectance Studies of Thermal Transport in Compositionally Modulated Metal Films.- Femtosecond Studies of Nonequilibrium Electronic Processes in Metals.- Time-Resolved Observation of Electron-Phonon Relaxation During Femtosecond Laser Heating of Copper.- Femtosecond Carrier Relaxation in Semiconductor-Doped Glasses.- Femtosecond Dynamics of Electron-Hole Plasma in Semiconductor Microcrystallite Doped Glass.- High-Contrast Ultrafast Phase Conjugation in Semiconductor-Doped Glass.- Femtosecond Vibrational Relaxation of the F2+ Center in LiF.- Determination of the Rapid Quenching Rates of Excited State F-Centers by OH? Defects in KCl.- Propagation of Coherent Phonon Polaritons in LiTaO3 Measured by FIR-Cherenkov-Pulses.- VI Chemical Reaction Dynamics.- Cages, Crossings and Correlations Theoretical Perspectives on Solution Reaction Dynamics.- Polarity Dependent Barriers and the Photoisomerization Dynamics of Polar Molecules in Solution.- Dynamic Solvent Effects on Small Barrier Isomerizations.- Solvation Dynamics in Polar Liquids: Experiment and Simulation.- Femtosecond Study of Electron Localization and Solvation in Pure Water.- Time-Dependent Fluorescence Shift in Alcoholic Solvents: A Non-Debye Behaviour Related to Hydrogen Bonds.- Picosecond Dynamics of Proton-Anion Ion Pair Geminate Recombination.- Excited State Proton Transfer in Matrix Isolated Water and Methanol Complexes of 2-Hydroxy-4,5-benzotropone and 3-Hydroxyflavone.- Detection of the Inverted Region in Photo-induced Intramolecular Electron Transfer.- Ultrafast Studies Designed to Test the Fundamental Statistical Assumptions Underlying Chemical Reactivity in Liquids.- Geminate Recombination and Relaxation of Condensed Phase Molecular Halogens.- Fast Photochemical Processes of Aromatic Nitro Compounds in Solution.- Cage Recombination and Unimolecular ?-Scission Reactions of Sulfur Centered Free Radicals.- The Influence of Friction and Deuteration on Stilbene Isomerization.- Kramers-Hubbard Approach to the Solvent Dependence of Isomerization.- Photoisomerization Studies of Substituted Stilbenes: 4,4?-Dihydroxystilbene and 4,4?-Dimethoxystilbene.- Picosecond Studies of Barrierless Torsional Diffusion.- Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectra of Ethidium Bromide.- Picosecond and Femtosecond Molecular Beam Chemistry: Coherence and Fragment Recoil Dynamics.- Picosecond Laser Study of the Collisionless UV Photodissociation of Energetic Materials.- Experimental Study of Harmonic Generation with Picosecond 248 nm Radiation.- Time-Resolved Measurement of Laser-Induced Desorption of a Molecular Monolayer.- VII Dynamics of Biological Processes.- Picosecond Electron Transfer and Stimulated Emission in Reaction Centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Chlorofelxus aurantiacus.- Femtosecond Spectroscopy of the Primary Events of Bacterial Photosynthesis.- An Accumulated Photon Echo Study of Sub-picosecond Processes in Photosynthetic Reaction Centers.- Ultrafast Electron and Energy Transfer in Reaction Center and Antenna Proteins from Photosynthetic Bacteria.- Femtosecond Spectroscopy of Excitation Energy Transfer and Initial Charge Separation in the Reaction Center of the Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.- Picosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy of Green Plant Photosystem I Reaction Centres.- Femtosecond-Pulse Spectroscopy of Primary Photoprocesses in Reaction Centers of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides R-26.- Detergent Effects upon the Picosecond Dynamics of Higher Plant Light Harvesting Chlorophyll Complex (LHC).- Picosecond Conformational Intermediates in the Bacteriorhodopsin Photocycle.- Electron Transfer and Rapid Restricted Motion in Homologous Azurins.- Primary Process of Vision: Hypsorhodopsin.- Reactivity and Dynamics of Hemeproteins in the Femtosecond and Picosecond Time Domains.- Picosecond Raman Hole Burning as a Probe of Conformational Heterogeneity: Applications to Oxyhemoglobin.- Ultrafast Studies of Nitrosylmyoglobin.- Molecular Dynamics Study of Vibrational Cooling in Optically Excited Hemeproteins.- Chemical Reaction in a Glassy Matrix: Dynamics of Ligand Binding to Protoheme in Glycerol:Water.- VIII Energy Transfer and Relaxation.- Energy and Electron Transfer of Adsorbed Dyes on Molecular Single Crystals and Other Substrates.- Optical Pump-Probe Spectroscopy of Dyes on Surfaces: Ground-State Recovery of Rhodamine 640 on ZnO and Fused Silica.- Picosecond Fluorescence Spectroscopy on Molecular Association in Langmuir-Blodgett Films.- Fluorescence Concentration Depolarization of DODCI in Glycerol: A Photon-Counting Test of Three-Dimensional Excitation Transport Theory.- Fractal Behaviors in Two-Dimensional Excitation Energy Transfer on Vesicle Surfaces.- Transient Vibrational Heating of Molecules After Internal Conversion.- Nonlinear Absorption Spectroscopy of Liquids with Ultrashort IR Pulses.- Femtosecond Relaxation Dynamics of Large Organic Molecules.- Population Lifetimes of OH(v=1) and OD(v=1) Vibrations in Alcohols, Silanols and Crystalline Micas.- S0-Sn Two-Photon Absorption Dynamics of Rhodamine Dyes.- Nonlinear Optical Response of One-Dimensional Excitons in Polydiacetylene.- Picosecond Photoconductivity and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena in trans-Polyacetylene.- Singlet Exciton Fusion in Molecular Solids.- Matrix Effect on Vibrational Relaxation in Molecular Crystals.- Optical Damage in Molecular Crystals: A Solid State Explosion.- Rotational Relaxation of Free and Solvated Rotors.- Ultrafast Dynamics at the Interface: Probing the Transition from Solution to Surface Interactions in Charged Micelles.- Shock Moderated Photophysics and Photochemistry at Multikilobar Pressures.- IX Coherent Spectroscopic Techniques.- Phase Grating Approach to Susceptibility Tensors: Determination in Isotropic Media.- Nonlinear Response Function for Four-Wave Mixing: Application to Coherent Raman Lineshapes in Polyatomics and to the Optical Anderson Transition.- Picosecond Laser Pulse Shaping and Phase Shifting for Molecular Spectroscopy.- Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Interactions in Thin Films of Organic Polymers Investigated by Picosecond and Subpicosecond Four-Wave Mixing.- Picosecond Raman-Induced Phase Conjugation Spectroscopy.- Polarization Dependence of Time-Resolved CARS in Liquids.- Direct Measurement of Wave-Vector-Dependent Polariton Energy Velocity and Dephasing in NH4Cl.- Impulsive Stimulated Rayleigh, Brillouin, and Raman Scattering: Experiments and Theory of Light Scattering Spectroscopy in the Time Domain.- Ultrafast Transient Spectroscopy with Broadband Non-Transform-Limited Light Sources.- Picosecond Dephasing Time Measurement by CSRS Using Temporally Incoherent Nanosecond Laser with Short Correlation Time.- Anomalous Pulse Duration Dependence of the Quasicontinuum Absorption Spectrum.- Index of Contributors.