ISBN-10:
1401814476
ISBN-13:
2901401814471
Pub. Date:
08/11/2003
Publisher:
Cengage Learning
Understanding Color Management / Edition 1

Understanding Color Management / Edition 1

by Abhay Sharma

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 2901401814471
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Publication date: 08/11/2003
Series: Graphic Design/Interactive Media Series
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 384
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

Abhay Sharma has a BS in Imaging Sciences from the University of Westminster, UK, and a PhD in Physics from King's College London, UK. Sharma developed color products as a Senior Research Scientist at FujiFilm Electronic Imaging, UK, before accepting a position as Associate Professor at Western Michigan University, USA. Dr Sharma is now a Professor in the School of Graphic Communications Management, Ryerson University in Toronto, where he teaches color management to students on the only degree program in print media in Canada. Sharma is well known in the industry via his involvement with the ICC and major Idealliance color evaluation projects for color proofing, color in digital presses, ink optimization, large-format inkjet printing, etc.

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Table of Contents

Foreword to 2nd Edition xv

Foreword to 1st Edition xvii

Preface xix

Acknowledgments xxvii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Why Do We Need Color Management? 1

1.2 Closed-loop Color Control 3

1.3 Need for an Open System 4

1.4 A Color Management System 5

1.5 Color Management Workflows 8

1.6 ICC – International Color Consortium 10

1.7 RGB and CMYK Color Specification 13

1.8 CIE 1931 Yxy and CIE 1976 Lab 16

1.9 Color Conversions 17

1.10 Three Cs of Color Management 19

1.11 Profile Types 20

1.11.1 Custom Profiles 20

1.11.2 Generic Profiles 21

1.11.3 Standard Profiles 22

1.12 Color Gamuts 24

1.13 Rendering Intents 26

1.14 Color Accuracy 28

1.15 Late-binding Workflows 29

1.16 Spot Colors and Proprietary Systems 30

1.17 Benefits of Color Management 31

1.18 Summary 34

2 Principles of Light and Color 37

2.1 Introduction 37

2.2 Light Source – Object – Human Observer 38

2.3 Electromagnetic Radiation 39

2.3.1 The Visible Spectrum 39

2.4 Specifying the Light Source 40

2.4.1 Spectral Power Distribution 40

2.4.2 Color Temperature 42

2.4.3 CIE Illuminants and Standard Sources 43

2.4.4 Viewing Booths 45

2.4.5 “Warm” and “Cold” Colors 46

2.5 Measuring the Sample Spectrum 46

2.5.1 Practical Color Samples 47

2.6 Quantifying Human Color Vision 49

2.6.1 CIE Standard Observer 50

2.6.2 Trichromatic Vision 51

2.7 Changing the Light Source 53

2.7.1 Chromatic Adaptation 53

2.7.2 Yellow Sodium-Vapor Street Lighting 54

2.7.3 Metamerism – Matching Jacket and Trousers 56

2.7.4 PANTONE® D50 Lighting Indicator 58

2.8 Vision and Measurement 58

2.8.1 Viewing the Invisible – Infrared 59

2.8.2 Ultraviolet Fluorescence 60

2.8.3 Color Illusions 60

2.8.4 Color Appearance Modeling 61

2.9 Summary 63

3 Color by Numbers 65

3.1 Introduction 65

3.2 Basic Attributes of Color: Hue, Saturation, and Lightness 66

3.3 Munsell Color System 67

3.4 CIE Color Specification 68

3.5 XYZ Tristimulus Values 69

3.5.1 Calculating XYZ 69

3.5.2 XYZ Example Colors 71

3.5.3 XYZ for Light Sources 72

3.6 CIE 1931 Yxy System 72

3.6.1 Advantages of the Yxy Chromaticity Diagram 74

3.6.2 Disadvantages of the Yxy Chromaticity Diagram 75

3.7 CIE 1976 LabSystem 77

3.7.1 Lab Practical Examples 80

3.7.2 Lab vs. Spectral Data 82

3.8 CIE 1976 LCh 83

3.9 Quantifying Color Difference 84

3.9.1 Calculating ΔE 85

3.9.2 Improved ΔE Equations 88

3.9.3 Which ΔE Should I Use? 91

3.9.4 ΔE and Images 92

3.10 Summary 93

4 Measuring Instruments 95

4.1 Introduction 95

4.2 Instrument Types 96

4.3 Instrument Filter Bands 97

4.4 Densitometers 98

4.4.1 Density Equation 99

4.4.2 Status Densitometry 99

4.4.3 Density and Process Control 100

4.5 Colorimeters 101

4.5.1 Filter-based Colorimetry 101

4.5.2 Improvements in Display Colorimeters 103

4.6 Spectrophotometers 104

4.6.1 Spectrophotometer Features and Functions 106

4.6.2 Ever Popular X-Rite i1Pro2 109

4.6.3 OBA and UV Fluorescence 110

4.6.4 M0, M1, M2, M3 Measurement Modes 111

4.7 Smartphone and Other Low-cost Systems 114

4.8 Inter-instrument and Inter-model Agreement 115

4.9 Instrument Repeatability vs. Accuracy 116

4.10 Instrument Calibration 117

4.11 Summary 120

5 Inside Profiles 121

5.1 Introduction 121

5.2 ICC Profile Specification 122

5.3 Hexadecimal Profile Encoding 123

5.4 Structure of an ICC Profile 124

5.5 Profile Header 124

5.5.1 Preferred CMM 125

5.5.2 Specification Version 125

5.5.3 Profile Class 126

5.5.4 Data Color Space and PCS 127

5.5.5 Flags 128

5.5.6 Rendering Intent 130

5.5.7 PCS Illuminant 130

5.5.8 Profile Creator 130

5.6 Tag Table 131

5.6.1 Profile Description Tag 131

5.6.2 XYZ Primaries Tag 132

5.6.3 Tone Reproduction Curve Tag 133

5.6.4 Media White Point Tag 133

5.6.5 Chromatic Adaptation Tag 133

5.6.6 Lookup Table Tags 135

5.6.7 Target Tag 137

5.6.8 Gamut Tag 139

5.6.9 Optional Tags 139

5.6.10 Private Tags 140

5.7 Version 2 and Version 4 Profiles 140

5.8 Version 5 Profiles and iccMAX 141

5.9 How Does a Lookup Table Work? 142

5.10 Summary 144

6 Managing Color in Digital Cameras 147

6.1 Introduction 147

6.2 Scanner Profiling 148

6.2.1 Making a Scanner Profile 148

6.3 Paradigm Shift from Scanners to Digital Cameras 149

6.4 Color Management for a Digital Camera 152

6.4.1 Bayer Color Filter Array 152

6.4.2 In-Camera JPEG Processing 153

6.4.3 Camera RAW Processing 154

6.4.4 Camera RAW Color Management 155

6.4.5 Creating a Camera RAW Profile 157

6.4.6 Digital Negative – DNG 157

6.5 File Formats for Digital Cameras 159

6.5.1 JPEG Lossy File Format 160

6.5.2 TIFF Lossless File Format 161

6.6 Studio Color Management 161

6.7 Summary 162

7 Monitor Profiles 165

7.1 Introduction 165

7.2 Three Cs of Monitor Profiling 167

7.3 Monitor Profiling Solutions 167

7.3.1 Free Utilities 167

7.3.2 Commercial Profiling Software 168

7.3.3 Integrated Soft Proofing Solutions 169

7.3.4 Hardware Calibrated Monitor Systems 170

7.4 Monitor Basics 171

7.4.1 External Brightness and Contrast 171

7.4.2 RGB Primaries 172

7.4.3 White Point 174

7.4.4 Monitor Gamma 174

7.4.5 Luminance Levels 175

7.4.6 The Dingy Yellow Effect 175

7.5 Making a Monitor Profile 177

7.6 Checking a Monitor Profile 178

7.7 Monitor Profiles and Windows 179

7.8 Monitor Profiles and Web Browsers 180

7.9 Monitor Profiles and Mobile Devices 181

7.10 Soft Proofing in Adobe Acrobat 182

7.11 Standards for Viewing Booths 183

7.12 Summary 184

8 Press and Printer Profiling 187

8.1 Introduction 187

8.2 The Three Cs in Printer Profiling 188

8.3 Calibration in Inkjet Systems 188

8.3.1 Ink Limiting 189

8.3.2 Ink Hooking 190

8.3.3 Ink Splitting 191

8.4 Calibration in Digital Presses 192

8.5 Calibration in Offset Printing 193

8.5.1 G7 Calibration 194

8.5.2 Shared Neutral Appearance vs. Full Color Match 196

8.6 Printer Test Charts 197

8.6.1 Commonly Used Printer Test Charts 197

8.6.2 Visual vs. Random Layout 199

8.7 Printing and Measuring the Test Chart 200

8.7.1 RGB or CMYK or Halftone Printer? 200

8.7.2 Printing with “No Color Management” 202

8.7.3 Layout for Different Measuring Instruments 204

8.7.4 White Backing 205

8.7.5 Examining the Measurement File 205

8.7.6 Averaging Measurement Files 206

8.8 Making a Printer Profile 206

8.8.1 Black Channel Generation 206

8.8.2 Profile Quality 209

8.9 Checking the Printer Profile 210

8.9.1 Quantitative Checking 210

8.9.2 Qualitative Checking 212

8.10 Reference Printing Conditions 213

8.10.1 Developing Reference Printing Conditions 214

8.10.2 American and European Reference Printing Conditions 215

8.10.3 Using Reference Printing Conditions in Prepress and Press 217

8.10.4 “Printing to the Numbers” 219

8.11 Rendering Intents 221

8.11.1 Perceptual Rendering Intent 222

8.11.2 Relative Colorimetric Rendering Intent 223

8.11.3 Absolute Colorimetric Rendering Intent 224

8.11.4 Saturation Rendering Intent 225

8.12 Device LinkWorkflows 225

8.12.1 ICC Device Linking 225

8.12.2 Proprietary Device Linking 226

8.13 Process Control in Printing 227

8.14 Summary 230

9 Spot Colors & Expanded Gamut Printing 233

9.1 Introduction 233

9.2 Specifying a Spot Color – PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM® 236

9.2.1 PANTONE Guides 236

9.2.2 Pantone Digital Color Libraries 239

9.2.3 PANTONE Ink Formulation Recipes 241

9.2.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of the PMS System 242

9.3 Printing a Spot Color 243

9.3.1 Printing with a Spot Color Ink 243

9.3.2 Simulating a Spot Color in CMYK 244

9.4 Spot Colors and Digital Presses 246

9.4.1 Creating a Swatch Book on a Digital Press 247

9.4.2 Spot Color Matching in Digital Presses 247

9.4.3 Spot Color Editor for a Digital Press 249

9.5 Expanded Gamut Printing 249

9.6 Software Solutions for Spot Colors and Expanded Gamut Printing 253

9.6.1 Gamut Warning in Adobe Photoshop 253

9.6.2 Using PANTONE Color Manager 253

9.6.3 Color Conversion with Esko Equinox 254

9.6.4 Gamut Calculation in Esko Color Engine Pilot 255

9.7 Summary 256

10 XML and Color Management 259

10.1 Introduction 259

10.2 Markup Languages 260

10.3 XML Design Principles 261

10.4 Basics of XML 262

10.4.1 Declaration 262

10.4.2 Elements 263

10.4.3 Attributes 263

10.4.4 Schema 264

10.4.5 Private Schemas 265

10.4.6 Validation and Conformance 265

10.5 Working with XML 267

10.5.1 iccMAX 267

10.5.2 Windows Color System (WCS) 268

10.5.3 Color Exchange Format (CxF) 269

10.5.4 X-Rite i1Profiler 271

10.5.5 JDF 272

10.6 XML not-best Practices 272

10.7 Summary 274

11 Color Management in Photoshop 275

11.1 Introduction 275

11.2 Photoshop Through the Ages 276

11.3 Photoshop’s Color Management Rules 278

11.3.1 Rule 1: Image + Profile 279

11.3.2 Rule 2: Profile – Connection Space – Profile 279

11.3.3 Rule 3: Real vs. Simulated Conversions 279

11.4 Photoshop’s Working Space 280

11.5 Menus in Photoshop 281

11.5.1 Opening an Image 282

11.5.2 Image Status 283

11.5.3 Color Settings 284

11.5.4 Assign Profile 286

11.5.5 Convert to Profile 287

11.5.6 Soft Proof Setup 289

11.6 Photoshop and Printing 290

11.6.1 Photoshop’s Print Settings 290

11.6.2 Hard Proofing 292

11.7 Putting It All Together 293

11.8 Summary 295

A Appendix 297

Index 305

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