Winner of the 2017 American Psychology-Law Society Book Award
A Greater Good Favorite Book of 2015
A Goodreads Best Book of the Month
A 2016 Media for a Just Society Awards Finalist
A 20th Annual Books for a Better Life Awards Finalist
A 2016 NASW Science in Society Journalism Award, Honorable Mention
A 2015 Green Bag Exemplary Legal Writing Honoree
"In this important, deeply researched debut, [Benforado] draws on findings from psychology and neuroscience to show that police, jurors, and judges are generally guided by intuitive feelings rather than hard facts in making assessments...The new research challenges basic assumptions about most key aspects of the legal system, including eyewitness memory, jury deliberations, police procedures, and punishment...An original and provocative argument that upends our most cherished beliefs about providing equal justice under the law."
—Kirkus Reviews, starred
"This book suggests that criminal justice in the United States is not a system at all but a set of dysfunctional units that deliver biased decisions that make society less safe. Benforado deftly analyzes actual cases and recent studies in psychology and neuroscience to argue for broad-based reforms...A stimulating critique of today's criminal justice system with applications to recent cases in Ferguson, MO, and elsewhere...Authoritative and accessible."
—Library Journal, starred
"...a well-documented eye-opener."
—San Francisco Book Review
"Unfair succinctly and persuasively recounts cutting-edge research testifying to the faulty and inaccurate procedures that underpin virtually all aspects of our criminal justice system, illustrating many with case studies."
—The Boston Globe
"In Unfair, [Benforado] argues that most errors in criminal justice stem from the failure to take into account the frailties of human cognition, memory and decision-making…this is a book everyone in the legal profession should read, and the rest of us too, for it is as much about the confounding idiosyncrasies of everyday behaviour as inequity in law."
“Benforado makes a compelling case, backed with reference to extensive scientific research, for [his] point of view in Unfair… Over and over again, Benforado demonstrates that basic assumptions underlying the criminal justice system are not supported by scientific evidence… [He] also reminds us of how far the practice of criminal justice has drifted from its ostensible goals… He is hopeful, however, that the system can be reformed, and the information in this book is offered in part toward that end. Unfair offers an excellent overview of an important body of information.”
“Benforado is part of a rising chorus of academics, politicians, and those of us who work in the criminal justice system who are appalled by the fact that this country spends $60 billion a year on prisons and boasts the dubious honor of incarcerating more persons per capita than any other nation. In Unfair, Benforado does a wonderful job of describing the scope of the problem and of thinking creatively about how we can improve our criminal justice system.”
—The Federal Lawyer
“Insightful… one of the most important books written in a very long time.”
—Douglas Blackmon, Pulitzer Prize-winning author of Slavery by Another Name; American Forum
"Benforado's book is simply chock-full of eye-opening research and practical suggestions for improvement... Hopefully, [Unfair] will push us to take a step in [the right] direction."
"No one denies that the criminal justice system should be based on reason and respect for our fellow humans, but Unfair compellingly insists that to do that will require accepting some uncomfortable truths. Every lawyer and judge working in the criminal justice system should read this book. Those who take it seriously will sleep uneasily for quite some time."
"As gripping as a Grisham novel, only it isn't fiction. With captivating cases and razor-sharp science, Adam Benforado puts the justice system on trial and makes a bulletproof argument that it's fundamentally broken. This extraordinary book is a must-read for every judge, lawyer, detective, and concerned citizen in America."
—Adam Grant, Wharton School of Business, and author of Give and Take
"In Unfair, Adam Benforado makes us aware of all our many imperfections when it comes to the judgment of others in our midst. He does so gently and with astonishing knowledge. Learning so much about our subconscious biases and the judicial system that exploits them is fascinatingand deeply troubling. But he goes further: he offers obtainable solutions, ones that we should race to effect, both within our own minds and in the human fates on which we bring our minds to bear."
—Jeff Hobbs, author of The Short and Tragic Life of Robert Peace
"Adam Benforado has written a book that will make you rethink everything you believe about crime and punishment. He gracefully blends science and storytelling to make a powerful case that our failure to bring the realities of human psychology into the courtroom has led to profound injustice. Enthralling and unsettling in equal measure, Unfair might be the most important book you read this year."
—Daniel H. Pink, author of Drive
"This thoughtful and penetrating study raises many deeply troubling questions, and even more important, offers humane and very reasonable approaches to cure some of the ills of a system of 'criminal injustice' that should not be tolerated."
—Noam Chomsky, Professor Emeritus, MIT
"Systems of justice are built by human brains. As such, they're subject to all the foibles of human psychology, from biased decision-making to xenophobia to false memories. With the eye of a scholar and the ear of a storyteller, Benforado marshals the burgeoning research to illuminate the nexus between law and the mind sciences."
—David Eagleman, Director of the Initiative on Neuroscience and Law, and author of Incognito
"Unfair is beautifully written, painstakingly researched, profoundly illuminating, and deeply disturbing. As evidence mounts that our criminal 'justice' system abounds with injustices, Benforado lays bare the systemic and psychological sources of its failures, weaving together compelling narrative and recent insights from the mind sciences. Unfair is must reading for anyone who cares about justice and, more important, for anyone who does not."
—Jon Hanson, Alfred Smart Professor of Law, Harvard Law School, and Faculty Director of the Project on Law and Mind Sciences and the Systemic Justice Project
"Unfair is a beautifully written book that manages to be both engrossing and importanta fascinating blend of psychological insight, legal know-how, and compelling storytelling. If you've ever wondered why the legal system doesn't work as well as it should, Benforado's intelligent take on the relationship between human psychology and the law will enlighten youand leave you hopeful that we're capable of doing better."
—Adam Alter, NYU Stern School of Business, and author of Drunk Tank Pink
"Unfair is an engaging, eye-opening read. By weaving together the latest findings in psychology and neuroscience with real-world stories of justice gone wrong, Unfair sheds new light on how easy it is for unconscious biases to wreak havoc on the criminal justice system and the steps that can be taken to make the system fairer."
—Sian Beilock, University of Chicago Professor of Psychology, and author of Choke and How the Body Knows Its Mind
"Unfair is an incisive look at the problems that arise in the legal system because of the way people think as well as the prospects for meaningful reform. Adam Benforado has written an engaging and masterful book on one of the most important issues society has to face."
—Art Markman, Professor of Psychology, University of Texas, author of Smart Thinking and Smart Change
"In this provocative critique of the American criminal justice system, Adam Benforado demonstrates beyond a reasonable doubt that unfair outcomes aren't tragic exceptionsthey're the rule, and human psychology is to blame. Bringing together cutting-edge research with insights from real life cases, Benforado shows us how our hidden biases undermine our guarantee of fairness and equality under the law, and offers much-needed solutions."
—Philip Zimbardo, author of The Lucifer Effect
"It's surprisingly easy to look back at high-profile criminal proceedings and see the flaws, while taking the overall system for granted. Adam Benforado looks across the whole canvas, elucidating through empirical data and scientific research how our own legal structures measure upor, more accurately, don'tto our values of justice and fairness. Criminal law in the United States is far from perfect, and Benforado's thorough, thought-provoking examination is a welcome step in identifying and preventing institutionalized injustice."
—Jonathan Zittrain, George Bemis Professor in Law, Harvard Law School
"In this fascinating book, Adam Benforado sheds new light from just about every angle on our criminal justice system. Practitioners, policy makers and everyday citizens will learn much about a subject that demands greater public debate."
—Tom Perriello, former Representative, United States Congress
"Unlike fields such as economics or philosophy, judicial theory and practice has largely ignored relevant findings about the human mind coming out of behavioral neuroscience and social psychology. This timely and important book can help us bring our criminal justice system into the 21st Century."
—Edward Slingerland, Co-director of the Centre for the Study of Human Evolution, Cognition and Culture and author of Trying Not to Try
"An admirable collection of compelling stories about what is wrong with the criminal justice system.”
This book suggests that criminal justice in the United States is not a system at all but a set of dysfunctional units that deliver biased decisions that make society less safe. Benforado (law, Drexel Univ.) deftly analyzes actual cases and recent studies in psychology and neuroscience to argue for broad-based reforms. The book is organized according to the traditional parts of the legal system, from police investigation to adjudication and punishment. Each chapter brims with insider information and current research on topics such as police interrogation techniques, false memory, jury conduct and consultants, and punishment and imprisonment from an international perspective. The author clearly illustrates how bias permeates the system and the way reforms, such as the Miranda rule and the elimination of New York's "stop and frisk" laws, are circumvented. Benforado advocates a host of new evidence-based reforms including greater use of technology in policing (e.g., video cameras, smartphones, gunshot tracking devices) to more futuristic changes (e.g., use of "virtual" trials). VERDICT A stimulating critique of today's criminal justice system with applications to recent cases in Ferguson, MO, and elsewhere, this authoritative and accessible book is suited to a general audience and students.—Antoinette Brinkman, formerly with Southwest Indiana Mental Health Ctr. Lib., Evansville
A law professor sounds an explosive alarm on the hidden unfairness of our legal system. The biggest problem with our criminal justice system, writes Benforado (Law/Drexel Univ.), is that "we have gotten used to it" and failed to act on new scientific evidence exposing the biases built into our legal structures. In this important, deeply researched debut, the author draws on findings from psychology and neuroscience to show that police, jurors, and judges are generally guided by intuitive feelings rather than hard facts in making assessments. They make gut decisions based on their own backgrounds and experiences and then look for supporting data that confirms their judgments. The new research challenges basic assumptions about most key aspects of the legal system, including eyewitness memory, jury deliberations, police procedures, and punishment. "We operate under the illusion that reality enters our brain through our senses unfiltered," writes Benforado, when, in fact, cognitive blinders distort everything: our assessments of crime scenes, responses to mug shots, interrogations of suspects, eyewitness identifications (innocent people are selected in lineups one-third of the time), and reactions to criminal defendants in the courtroom. The problem lies in the human propensity to make snap judgments and to label people, ignoring contradictory information. Benforado uses case studies to illustrate the biases of the system and details many possible ways to reduce our reliance on human perception and memory, from using diverse new technologies to replacing partisan expert witnesses with independent witness panels. He even raises the prospect of virtual trials, in which participants would interact through avatars to eliminate biases. "If a doctor no longer needs to be in the same room with her patients," he writes, "why is it so critical that a defendant be in the same room as the person he allegedly raped or shot or robbed?" An original and provocative argument that upends our most cherished beliefs about providing equal justice under the law.