Urban tree management is the key basis for greener cities of the future. It is a practical discipline which includes tree selection, planting, care and protection and the overall management of trees as a collective resource.
Urban Tree Management aims to raise awareness for the positive impacts and benefits of city trees and for their importance to city dwellers. It describes their advantages and details their effects on quality of urban life and well-being aspects that are increasingly important in these times of progressing urbanisation.
With this book you will learn:
- fundamentals, methods and tools of urban tree management
- state of the art in the fields of urban forestry and tree biology
- positive effects and uses of urban trees
- features, requirements and selection criteria for urban trees
- conditions and problems of urban trees
- governance and management aspects
- environmental education programs.
Edited by the leading expert Dr Andreas Roloff, Urban Tree Management is an excellent resource for plant scientists, horticulturists, dendrologists, arborists and arboriculturists, forestry scientists, city planners, parks department specialists and landscape architects. It will be an essential addition to all students and libraries where such subjects are taught.
|Product dimensions:||6.60(w) x 9.50(h) x 0.60(d)|
About the Author
Dr Andreas Roloff is Chair of Forest Botany, Dresden University of Technology, Germany. He is the author/editor of other Wiley publications: Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse (Encyclopedia of Woody Plants), Bäume Nordamerikas (North American Trees), Bäume Mitteleuropas (Trees in Central Europe), Bäume: Lexikon der Praktischen Baumbiologie, (Trees: Encyclopedia of Applied Tree Biology).
Table of Contents
List of contributors, xiii1 Intro: Urban trees – Importance, benefits, problems, 1Andreas Roloff1.1 Introduction, 11.2 Aesthetics, sensory impressions, 11.3 Psychology, well-being, health, 31.4 Environmental education, ecology, 91.5 Orientation, spacious ordering, architecture, 91.6 Protection, quality of life, 91.7 Food/diet, healing powers, 111.8 Utilization of trees, 111.9 Economic and social advantages, 111.10 Issues, 121.11 Conclusion, 13References, 132 Urban trees: Features and requirements, 15Andreas Roloff2.1 Urban tree site categories, 152.2 Special conditions for urban trees, 152.3 Requirements and selection criteria, 152.4 Conclusions, 19References, 193 Fundamentals of tree biology for urban trees, 20Doris Krabel3.1 Morphological and anatomical features, 203.1.1 Trunk, 203.1.2 Roots, 223.1.3 Mycorrhizae, 243.1.4 Secondary growth, 253.1.5 Periderm and bark, 273.2 Tree growth and growth reactions, 283.2.1 Photosynthesis – the fundamental growth process, 283.2.2 The role of water, 293.2.3 Seasonal dynamics, 303.2.4 Wound reactions, 313.3 Conclusions, 33References, 344 Urban tree roots: Problems and peculiarities, 36Sandra Korn4.1 Damages to and influences on the root system of urban trees, 364.1.1 Site conditions, 364.1.2 Human activity, 374.1.3 Construction sites, 394.2 Damage caused by the root system of urban trees, 414.3 Precautions/preventing damage, 434.4 Conclusions, 44References, 455 Drought stress: Adaptation strategies, 47Sandra Korn5.1 What is stress? – Stress concepts, 475.2 Stress responses, 475.2.1 Adaptation to drought stress – stress escape, 485.2.2 Adaptation to drought stress – stress resistance by avoidance, 495.2.3 Adaptation to drought stress – stress resistance by tolerance, 515.3 Identifying tree species adapted to stress, 535.3.1 Responses and adaptations to drought stress, 535.3.2 Identifying suitable tree species, 535.4 Conclusions, 56References, 566 Aspects of urban tree pathology, 58Rolf Kehr6.1 Definitions, terms and concepts, 586.2 Abiotic damage and disorders, 596.3 Virus diseases, 616.4 Diseases caused by bacteria and other prokaryotes, 616.5 Diseases caused by oomycetes, 646.6 Fungal diseases, 656.6.1 Systemic fungal infections, 656.6.2 Leaf and needle diseases, 676.6.3 Shoot and stem diseases and cankers, 686.6.4 Rust diseases, 706.6.5 Root diseases, 706.6.6 Wood decay, 716.7 Parasitic plants, 726.8 Plant-parasitic nematodes and insect pests, 736.9 Damage by herbivorous mammals, 766.10 Impact of introduced pests and diseases, 766.11 Aspects of control methods for pests and diseases of urban trees, 766.12 Conclusions, 77References, 777 Vitality assessment, tree architecture, 82Andreas Roloff7.1 Introduction, 827.2 Decline and stress symptoms of tree crowns: “leaf loss” vs. crown structure, 827.3 Tree architecture and reiterations, 837.3.1 Architectural models, 837.3.2 Reiterations, 857.4 Changes in the crown structure with decreasing vitality, 877.4.1 Shoot morphology: shoot base scars, short?] and long-shoots, 877.4.2 Model of growth stages, 887.4.3 Vitality classes, 907.4.4 Vitality and tree life expectancy, 927.5 Conclusions, 94References, 948 Body language of trees, tree diagnostics, 95Andreas Roloff8.1 Terms and definition, 958.2 Adaptation and optimization in trees, 958.3 Examples and explanation: branches, trunk/bark, roots, 968.3.1 Branch-shedding collar, 968.3.2 Hazard beams, 978.3.3 Bottle butts, 988.3.4 Forked trees, 988.3.5 Nose-like ribs on forked trees, 998.3.6 Sunburn, 998.3.7 Stem crack, 1008.3.8 Longitudinal splitting, 1008.3.9 Knobs and nodules, 1008.3.10 Bark stripes on ribs, 1028.3.11 Supply shadow, 1038.3.12 Elephant’s foot, 1038.3.13 Hollow trunks, 1048.3.14 Crown/root relationship, 1048.3.15 Root symphysis, 1058.3.16 Tension roots on slopes, 1058.3.17 Covered root collars, 1068.3.18 Root collar strangling, 1078.3.19 Sealing of the root area, 1078.3.20 Inner roots, 1088.3.21 Adventitious roots, 1088.4 Conclusions, 109References, 1109 Tree inventory, risk assessment and management, 111Steffen Rust9.1 Introduction, 1119.2 Tree inventory, 1129.2.1 Inventory parameters, 1129.2.2 Technology, 1129.3 Tree risk assessment, 1139.3.1 Terms and concepts, 1139.3.2 Visual assessment, 1159.3.3 Advanced assessment, 1229.3.4 Risk categorization and reporting, 1309.4 Conclusions, 132References, 13210 Tree preservation, maintenance and repair, 135Steffen Rust10.1 Introduction, 13510.2 Preserving existing trees during development, 13510.2.1 Tree constraints plan, 13610.2.2 Tree survey, 13610.2.3 Root protection area, 13810.2.4 Tree Protection Plan, 13810.2.5 Arboricultural method statement, 13810.2.6 Pre-development treatments, 13910.3 Maintenance of planted and established trees, 13910.3.1 Physical support, 13910.3.2 Protection against collisions, 14310.3.3 Solar radiation, 14410.3.4 Wound treatment, 14410.3.5 Water management, 14410.3.6 Mulching, 14610.3.7 Mycorrhizae, 14810.3.8 Soil compaction, 14810.3.9 De-icing salt, 15010.3.10 Pruning to mitigate risk, 15010.3.11 Ancient and veteran trees, 15110.3.12 Precautionary measures, 15110.4 Conclusions, 152References, 15311 Tree pruning: Methods and parameters, 154Ulrich Pietzarka11.1 Introduction, 15411.2 Consequences of pruning, 15411.3 Important parameters, 15711.4 The pruning system, 16011.4.1 Palms, 16211.5 Intensity of pruning, 16411.6 Date of pruning, 16511.6.1 Reduction of assimilates and reserves, 16611.6.2 Species and nature conservation, 16711.6.3 Hazard of fungal infestation, 16711.6.4 Risk of sunburn, 16711.6.5 Severe frost, 16711.6.6 Visibility, 16711.7 Conclusion, 168References, 16812 Transplanting large trees, 169Ulrich Pietzarka12.1 Introduction, 16912.2 Definitions, tasks, decisions, 16912.3 Preparation, 17212.4 Transplantation practices, 17312.5 Post-planting care, 17512.6 Conclusion, 175References, 17513 Dust and noise reduction, 177Britt Kniesel13.1 Dust, 17713.1.1 Dust definition and origins, 17713.1.2 Interaction between dust particles and vegetation, 17713.1.3 Planting design, 18013.2 Noise, 18013.2.1 Noise control, 18013.2.2 Noise attenuation by vegetation, 18013.2.3 Planting design, 18213.3 Conclusions, 183References, 18314 Invasive species, indigenous vs. alien dendroflora, 185Matthias Meyer14.1 Introduction, 18514.2 Floristic statuses – important definitions for urban dendroflora, 18514.2.1 “Indigenous” vs. “alien”, 18614.2.2 “Casual” and “naturalized” vs. “invasive”, 18714.3 Invasibility of habitats and invasiveness of dendroflorain urban landscapes, 18814.4 Arguments pro or contra “alien” woody species and risk assessment, 18914.5 The example of the tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima), 19014.6 Prevention and control measures against invasive woodyspecies or tree weeds, 19114.7 Conclusions, 193References, 19315 Criteria for species selection: Development of a database for urban trees, 196Sten Gillner, Mathias Hofmann, Andreas Tharang and Juliane Vogt15.1 Introduction, 19615.2 Species description, growth conditions, and risks relatedto species use, 19815.2.1 Data pool and nomenclature, 19815.2.2 Literature review and evaluation, 19815.2.3 Structure of the database, 19915.3 Urban Tree Location Categorization, 19915.3.1 Urban tree location types, 20215.3.2 Specific demographic groups, 20415.4 Psychological aspects of the database, 20515.4.1 User-based urban green space categorization, 20515.4.2 Tree perception and tree preferences, 20615.5 Application possibilities and limitation of use, 20715.6 Conclusions, 208References, 20916 Genetic aspects, 211Doris Krabel16.1 The problem of trees from a genetic point of view, 21116.2 Diversity, monoculture, variety and clones – some general comments, 21416.3 The risk of missing diversity, 21516.4 Genetic diversity as an element of design and planning in urban spaces, 21716.5 Conclusions, 219References, 21917 Governance in urban forestry, 221Jürgen Pretzsch17.1 Introduction: challenges and need for action, 22117.2 Objectives and definitions, 22117.2.1 Objectives, 22117.2.2 Definitions, 22217.3 Diagnosis and conceptual framework, 22217.3.1 Socio-ecological co-evolution model for urban forestry, 22217.3.2 Historical development of urban forestry governance, 22317.3.3 Increasing complexity and paradigm change, 22417.3.4 Stakeholder analysis and differentiation in participant groups, 22517.3.5 Assessment by the livelihood framework, 22617.4 Governance models for urban forestry, 22717.4.1 Introduction to urban forestry governance models, 22717.4.2 Public administration: changing functions and diversification, 22717.4.3 Public-private partnerships, 22817.4.4 Governance based on private urban forestry, 22817.4.5 Donations, 22817.4.6 Allotment gardens, 22817.4.7 Neighborhood groups and collective gardening, 23017.5 Lessons learned for the future development of urban forestry, 23017.5.1 Paradigm change, 23017.5.2 Chances and limits of collective action in urban forestry, 23117.5.3 Exclusion and conflict management, 23117.5.4 Adaptive management, 23117.5.5 Forthcoming steps in practice and research, 23217.6 Conclusions, 232References, 23418 Allotment gardens and privately managed greenspace in urban environment, 236Eckhard Auch18.1 Introduction, 23618.2 Some definitions, 23618.2.1 Green space as urban soft infrastructure, 23618.2.2 Urban gardening vs. urban horticulture, agricultureand agroforestry, 23718.3 Urban gardens, 23718.3.1 Generic types of urban gardens, 23718.3.2 Urban gardens in history, 23818.3.3 Urban gardens for the disadvantaged in the 20th Century, 23918.4 Function and benefits/services of trees and gardens in urban contexts, 24118.5 Recent forms of urban gardening in the global North and global South, 24218.5.1 Factors facilitating the emergence, 24218.5.2 Newer urban garden forms (selection), 24318.6 Conclusions, 245References, 24519 Urban woods for relaxation and inspiration, 247Eckhard Auch, Hubertus Pohris and Markus Biernath19.1 Introduction, 24719.2 Some definitions, 24719.3 Forest ecosystem functions and services, 24819.4 Changing demands on urban and peri-urban forests – the case of Dresden, 25119.4.1 Change in forest functions, 25119.4.2 Functional transformation of the Dresdner Heide forest, with focus onrecreation, 25119.5 Urban forestry and silviculture, 25419.5.1 Urban forests as recreational resource, 25419.5.2 Silvicultural operations for recreational resources, 25419.6 Silvicultural specifics of urban and peri-urban forest management, 25619.7 Conclusions, 259References, 25920 Acceptance for urban trees: Environmental education programs, 262Ulrich Pietzarka20.1 Introduction, 26220.2 Education for sustainable development, 26220.3 Features of successful education programs, 26420.3.1 Specific to target groups, 26420.3.2 Inviting, 26620.3.3 Focused, 26620.3.4 Relevant, 26720.3.5 Active, 26720.3.6 Entertaining, 26820.4 The search for professional partners, 26820.5 Conclusions, 269References, 270Index, 271