Pub. Date:
Taylor & Francis
Urban Water Security: Managing Risks: Unesco-ihp / Edition 1

Urban Water Security: Managing Risks: Unesco-ihp / Edition 1

by Blanca Jimenez Cisneros, JOAN B ROSE
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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780415485678
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 03/18/2009
Pages: 324
Product dimensions: 6.75(w) x 9.75(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2 Drinking water – Potential health effects caused by wastewater disposal
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Direct and indirect wastewater reuse
2.3 Microbiological risks
2.3.1 Viruses
2.3.2 Bacteria
2.3.3 Protozoa
2.3.4 Helminths
2.4 Risk reduction of pathogens in drinking water
2.5 Chemical risks
2.6 Treated wastewater in surface waters
2.7 The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in drinking water
2.8 Risk management of microbial and chemical hazards
2.9 Implementation of Water Safety Plans
2.10 HACCP
2.11 Hazard analysis
2.12 Conclusions
2.13 References

3 Microbial Health Risks and Water Quality
3.1 Introduction
3.2 The Traditional Icons of Waterborne Disease
3.2.1 Cholera
3.2.2 Typhoid
3.2.3 Hepatitis
3.2.4 Generic Diarrhea
3.3 Emerging Diseases and Zoonotic Pathogens
3.3.1 Cryptosporidium
3.3.2 Cyclospora
3.3.3 E. coli O157:H7
3.3.4 Helicobacter
3.4 Risk Assessment and Control of Waterborne Pathogens
3.4.1 Use of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment
3.4.2 Interventions to reduce enteric diseases
3.4.3 Vaccinations
3.5 Conclusions and Recommendations
3.6 References

4 Chemical Health Risks
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Human Health Risks
4.2.1 An Overview on Exposure Factors
4.2.2 Human Exposure in Urban Water Cycle
4.3 Risk Sources and Risk Compounds in Urban Water Cycle
4.3.1 Releases to Water
4.3.2 Chemical Compounds
4.4 Inorganic Chemical Risk Agents: Sources and Human Health Diseases of Concern
4.4.1 Nitrates and Nitrites
4.4.2 Fluoride
4.4.3 Toxic Metals Arsenic Mercury Lead
4.5 Organic Chemical Risk Agents: Sources and Human Health Diseases of Concern
4.5.1 Hydrocarbons Compounds
4.5.2 Chlorinated Organic Compounds Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Solvents Trihalomethanes (THMs)
4.5.3 Pesticides
4.5.4 Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
4.5.5 New Chemicals
4.6 Chemical Risks in Urban Cities in Developed Countries
4.6.1 Fluoride China Japan United States of America
4.6.2 Arsenic (As) Canada China United States of America
4.6.3 Mercury Canada Arctic China Japan United States of America
4.6.4 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Netherlands United States of America
4.6.5 Trihalomethanes (THMs) Alaska Canada United Kingdom United States of America
4.6.6 New Chemicals
4.7 Chemical Risks in Urban Cities in Developing Countries
4.7.1 Fluoride Brazil Ethiopia India Kenya Mexico Saudi Arabia South Africa Turkey United Republic of Tanzania
4.7.2 Arsenic (As) Argentina Bangladesh – West Bengal, India Chile Mexico Taiwan Thailand Vietnam
4.7.3 Mercury (Hg) Brazil Philippines South Africa
4.7.4 Trihalomethanes (THMs) Greece Malaysia Mexico Turkey
4.7.5 Pesticides Brazil Egypt South Africa
4.8 Chemical Risk Management in Urban Water Cycle
4.8.1 Chemical Risks Identification in Urban Water Cycle Drinking water Other water-related chemical risks
4.8.2 Vulnerability and Variability
4.8.3 Urban Water Policy
4.9 References

5 Risk Management on the urban water cycle. Climate change risks
5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 Global climate change
5.1.2 Global climate change and hydrological cycle
5.1.3 Mitigation of GHG emissions
5.2 Water in an urbanized world
5.2.1 Water scarcity
5.3 Impacts and risks
5.3.1 Water availability and glacial melt
5.3.2 Sea level rise and extreme events
5.3.3 Water quality
5.3.4 Changes in the past decades related to Global Climate Change
5.3.5 Risks for urban settlements
5.4 Adaptation and integration of climate change into urban water resource management
5.4.1 Adaptation and sustainable development
5.4.2 Planning under uncertainties
5.4.3 Supply and demand options
5.4.4 Urban water management
5.4.5 Poverty and equity
5.4.6 International aid
5.5 Conclusions
5.6 References

6 Water source and drinking water risk management
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Security, Reliability and Risk
6.3 Uncertainty, Threats and Effects
6.4 Prevention, Mitigation and Resolution
6.5 Scarcity and Drought, an Operational Example
6.6 Conclusions and Recommendations

7 Wastewater risks in the urban water cycle
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Pollutants sources
7.2.1 Point sources Municipal wastewater Industrial wastewater Stormwater
7.2.2 Non point pollutant sources Urban infrastructure Urban activities Disposal practices Other sources
7.3 Pollutants involved
7.3.1 Conventional parameters
7.3.2 Biological pollutants
7.3.3 Emerging pollutants Content in water Content in surface and groundwater
7.4 Management
7.4.1 Changing the concept of pollution sources
7.4.2 Gathering useful information
7.4.3 Monitoring campaigns
7.4.4 Water Sources management Groundwater Surface water
7.4.5 Pollutant management Biological pollutants Chemical compounds
7.4.6 Urban infrastructure and urban activities
7.4.7 Climate change
7.4.8 Education and research
7.5 Treatment
7.5.1 Biological pollutants
7.5.2 Emerging pollutants
7.5.3 Criteria for selecting wastewater treatment processes
7.6 Wastewater disposal
7.6.1 Soil disposal Soil disposal and aquifer storage Soil disposal and agriculture
7.6.2 Disposal in water bodies Eutrophication Coupling wastewater disposal with water reuse
7.7 Conclusions
7.8 References

8 Risks Associated with Biosolids Reuse in Agriculture
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Nutrient and agronomic value
8.3 Microbiological quality
8.4 Potentially toxic elements
8.5 Organic contaminants
8.6 Conclusions
8.7 References

9 “Closing the Urban Water Cycle” Integrated Approach towards Water Reuse in Windhoek, Namibia
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Water sources in Windhoek
9.2.1 Conventional water sources
9.3 Reuse Options Implemented in Windhoek
9.4 Future water supply augmentation to Windhoek
9.5 Various process modifications from 1968 to 1995
9.6 Process design for the new Goreangab water reclamation plant
9.6.1 Summary
9.6.2 Raw Water Quality Profile
9.6.3 Determination of Treatment Objectives
9.6.4 The Multiple-Barrier Concept
9.6.5 Experiments and Pilot Studies to Determine Process Design Criteria
9.7 Selection of Final Process Train
9.8 Operational Experience to Date
9.9 Water Quality and Monitoring
9.10 Quality concerns with the present process configuration
9.11 Cost Considerations
9.12 Public Acceptance of Direct Potable Reuse
9.13 New Research and Development Options
9.14 Conclusion
9.15 References

10 Reducing risk from wastewater use in urban farming – a case study of Accra, Ghana
10.1 Introduction
10.2 The case of Accra
10.2.1 Urban water use and wastewater management
10.2.2 Irrigated urban vegetable farming
10.2.3 Irrigation water quality
10.2.4 Quality of vegetables in urban markets in Accra
10.2.5 Numbers of consumers at risks
10.2.6 Risk Assessment to farmers and consumers
10.3 Risk reduction measures
10.3.1 Explore alternative farmland, tenure security and safer water sources
10.3.2 Promote safer irrigation methods
10.3.3 Influence the choice of crops grown
10.3.4 Avoid post-harvest contamination
10.3.5 Assist post-harvest decontamination
10.3.6 Improve institutional coordination to develop integrated policies
10.4 Conclusions
10.5 References

11 Drinking water – potential health effects caused by infiltration of pollutants from solid waste landfills
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Pollutants in landfill leachates
11.3 The exposure pathways and mechanisms
11.4 Cases
11.5 Conclusions
11.6 References

12 Exploding sewers: the industrial use and abuse of municipal sewers, and reducing the risk—the experience of Louisville, Kentucky US
12.1 Introduction
12.2 The Hexa-Octa Incident
12.3 The sewer explosions
12.4 Industrial waste and hazardous spills
12.5 About the Louisville and Jefferson County Metropolitan Sewer District (MSD)
12.6 Reasons for doing permitting and pretreatment compliance programs
12.7 Components of the Permitting and Pretreatment Compliance Program
12.7.1 Commercial/industrial process plan review
12.7.2 Permits
12.7.3 Unusual Discharge Requests (UDR)
12.7.4 Industrial inspections
12.7.5 Sampling and monitoring
12.7.6 Compliance and enforcement
12.8 Chemical Spill Prevention and Response—The Hazardous Materials Incident Response Team
12.9 Sampling and Monitoring to reduce risk—the Collection System Monitoring Program
12.9.1 Data management and computerization
12.10 Conclusions: need for strong local programs to reduce risk
12.11 References

13 Lessons learned: a response and recovery framework for post-disaster scenarios
13.1 Introduction
13.1.1 Background
13.1.2 Rationale
13.1.3 Objectives
13.1.4 Methodology
13.1.5 General Principles
13.2 Response and Recovery Framework
13.2.1 General Guidelines
13.2.2 Immediate Aftermath (0-7 Days)
13.2.3 Short Term (Next 60 days)
13.2.4 Medium term (Next 3-12 Months)
13.3 Conclusion
13.4 References

14 Managing urban water risks: Managing drought and climate change risks in Australia
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Managing Drought Risks
14.3 Adapting to Climate Change Impacts
14.3.1 Climate Change Forecasts
14.3.2 Modeling of Impacts
14.3.3 Water Reforms and Environmental Flows
14.3.4 Climate Change Impacts
14.3.5 Adapting with Water Savings and Water Reuse
14.4 Adaptation Case Study
14.4.1 The Sydney Water System
14.4.2 The Sydney Metropolitan Water Plan 2006
14.4.3 Managing Drought Risks
14.4.4 Enhanced Stochastic Analyses
14.4.5 Economic Analyses
14.4.6 Another Example
14.5 Additional Drought Security Issues
14.5.1 Drought Severity
14.5.2 Hindcasting
14.5.3 Starting Storage
14.5.4 Demand Variability
14.5.5 Demand Hardening
14.5.6 Building Diverse Water Portfolios
14.6 Conclusions
14.7 References

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