Urbanism, Health and Human Biology in Industrialised Countries
Over 70% of the population in industrialized nations live in cities; in the next decade so will most of the world's entire population. This volume examines the impact of urban living on human health and biology. Cities pose numerous and diverse social and biological challenges to human populations. These challenges bear little resemblance to the forces that molded human biology throughout millions of years of evolution. Urban populations in industrialized nations have distinctive patterns of behavior, social stratification, stress, infectious disease, diet, activity, and exposure to pollutants from years of industrialization. These features affect diverse aspects of human function including human nutrition, energy expenditure, growth, and reproduction.
List of contributors; Part I. The Urban Environment: 1. Urbanism, urbanisation, health and human biology: an introduction Lawrence M. Schell and Stanley J. Ulijaszek; 2. Urbanisation and urbanism in industrialised nations, 1850-present: implications for health A. J. McMichael; 3. Urban development and change: present patterns and future prospects David Clark; 4. Traditional environments: health and the perception of permanence in urban micro-environments R. Huss-Ashmore and C. Behrman; Part II. Epidemiology: 5. Emerging infectious diseases: biology and behaviour in the inner city George DiFerdinando; 6. Fecundity and ovarian function in urban environments P. T. Ellison; 7. Pollution and child health L. M. Schell and A. D. Stark; 8. Urbanism and health in industrialised Asia J. Peters; Part III. Poverty and Health: 9. Urban poverty and nutrition in the United Kingdom E. Dowler; 10. Poverty, nutrition and obesity in the USA F. E. Johnston and P. Gordon-Larsen; 11. Nutritional status and its health consequences among low-income urban pregnant women: diet and environmental toxicants S. Czerwinski; Part IV. Behaviour and Stress: 12. Urbanism and psychosocial stress Tessa M. Pollard; 13. Physical activity, lifestyle and health of urban populations S. J. Ulijaszek; 14. HIV transmission in urban environments: London and beyond M. Parker; Part V. The Future: 15. The future of urban environments S. J. Ulijaszek and L. M. Schell; Index.