Pub. Date:
McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Video Production: Disciplines and Techniques / Edition 8

Video Production: Disciplines and Techniques / Edition 8


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780072314526
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Publication date: 08/04/2000
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 352
Product dimensions: 8.46(w) x 10.76(h) x 0.60(d)

About the Author

Thomas D. Burrows is Professor Emeritus in the Radio, TV, and Film Department at California State University, Northridge. Retirement from full-time teaching has provided him the opportunity to pursue a number of activities relating both to his academic background and to his work as a professional broadcaster. He continues to work with California State University, Northridge, on a number of projects, and he is active in the production division of the broadcast Education Association. During his earlier career as a producer and director, he received the Christopher, Emmy, and Peabody awards. He holds an M.A. degree from the School of Journalism at the University of Southern California.

Lynne Schafer Gross is presently a Professor in the Department of Radio-TV-Film at California State University, Fullerton. She has written ten other textbooks and hundreds of magazine articles. In 1999 she was the recipient of the Frank Stanton Award for Distinguished Contribution to Electronic Media Education and in 1997 she received the Distinguished Education Service Award from the Broadcast Education Association. She is a past governor of the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences and has also chaired that organization’s Library Committee and Student Activities Committee. As Past President of the Broadcast Education Association she increased membership 24% and funding 59%. Professionally, she is currently Associate Producer for the video series “Journeys Below the Line” and in the past she was Director of Programming for Valley Cable TV and the producer of numerous radio and TV programs for public, commercial, and cable outlets. Her teaching and consulting have taken her tomany countries including Malaysia, Swaziland, Estonia, Australia, Guyana, and Russia. Her doctorate is from UCLA.

James Foust is an Assistant Professor and current head of the Broadcast Journalism sequence at Bowling Green State University in Bowling Green, Ohio. He has worked for more than six years in Television production and news videography and editing. James Foust has a Ph.D. in Mass Communication and a MS in Journalism from Ohio University. He received his BA in Telecommunications from Youngstown State University.

Donald N. Wood has been teaching at California State University, Northridge, since 1970 as a professor of radio-TV-film. Professor Wood is the author of Mass Media and the Individual and Designing the Effective Message, and he is co-author of Educational Telecommunications. His most recent book (1996) is Post-Intellectualism and the Decline of Democracy: The Failure of Reason and Responsibility in the Twentieth Century.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction to Video

1.1 Personal Disciplines in Support of Technique

Development of a Professional Attitude
Attitudes and Self-Image

1.2 The Move to Convergence

1.3 Historical Background

Early Television
Uses of Film and Live Cameras
The Impact of Recorded and Edited Video
Portable Video Equipment

1.4 Recent Innovations

Digital Formats
Computer-Controlled Editing
Video Compression
Interactive Video
A new Technology for Playback and Recording

1.5 Aspects of Employment in the Video Industry

Work Patterns and Locations
Final Notes on Employment

Discussion Questions

Chapter 2: Cast and Crew

2.1 Producers

Before Production Begins
During Rehearsal and Recording
After the Production

2.2 Directors

Before Production Begins
During Rehearsal and Recording
After the Production

2.3 Associate Directors

Before Production Begins
During Rehearsal and Recording
After the Production

2.4 Stage Managers

Before Production Begins
During Rehearsal and Recording
After the Production

2.5 Camera Operators

Before Production Begins
During Rehearsal and Recording
After the Production

2.6 Teleprompter Operators

Before Production Begins
During Rehearsal and Recording
After the Production

2.7 Lighting Directors

Before Production Begins
During Rehearsal and Recording
After the Production

2.8 Audio Operators

Before Production Begins
During Rehearsal and Recording
After the Production

2.9 Technical Directors

Before Production Begins
During Rehearsal and Recording
After the Production

2.10 Graphics Operators

BeforeProduction Begins
During Rehearsal and Recording
After the Production

2.11 Video Operators

Before Production Begins
During Rehearsal and Recording
After the Production

2.12 Editors

Before Production Begins
During Rehearsal and Recording
After the Production

2.13 Other Positions

2.14 Cast

Television Performers

Television Actors

Discussion Questions

Chapter 3: Audio

3.1 Seven Basic Control Functions

Recording and Playing Back

3.2 Microphones

Frequency Response
Tupes of Microphones
Stereo Recording

3.3 Outboard Equipment

CD Players
DAT Recorders
Cassette Recorders
MiniDisc Recorders
Cartridge Recorders
Digital Carts
Reel-to-reel Recorders
Videotape Audio Tracks
Servers and Other Computer-Based Equipment

3.4 Cables, Connectors, and Patch Bays

Patch Bays

3.5 – Audio Consoles

The Basic Board
Advanced Functions

3.6 – Digital Audio Workstations

3.7 – Tips for Recording Good Sound

3.8 Voice Command Procedure

Discussion Questions

Chapter 4:

4.1 Types of Light: Incident and Reflected

4.2 General Lighting Objectives

Intensity and Consistency
Contrast Radio
Color Temperature

4.3 Creative Lighting Objectives

Shape, Texture, and Perspective
Focus of Attention

4.4 Lighting Instruments


4.5 Fundamental Lighting Concepts

Three-Point Lighting
Auxiliary Light Sources
Multiple-Camera Lighting

4.6 Lighting Setup Procedures

Mounting Lighting Instruments
Lighting Control Factors

4.7 Preproduction Planning

4.8 Safety Precautions and Disciplines

Discussion Questions

Chapter 5: Cameras

5.1 The Video Scanning Process

NTSC Television
ATSC Television

5.2 Principles of Video Color


5.3 Lens Characteristics

Focal Length
The F-stop Aperture
Depth of Field

5.4 Production Use of the Zoom

Lens Ratio
Movement Control
Macro Lens

5.5 Camera Unit Controls

Viewfinder Visual Indicators and Controls
White Balance
Video Output Level Selector
Other Controls

5.6 Camera Mounting and Movement

Camera Head Movement
Camera Mounts
Camera Mount Movements
Hand-held Cameras
Robotic Camera Control

5.7 Field of View

The Long Shot (LS)
The Medium Shot (MS)
The Close-up (CU)
Alternating Fields of View

5.8 Picture Composition

Lead Room
Depth Composition
Angle of Elevation
Other Composition Problems

5.9 Production Techniques

Discussion Questions6.1 Basic Principles of Video Switchers
Digital Switchers
Master Control and Routing Switchers

6.2 Basic Switcher Design

Using the Preset Bus
Mix and Preview Buses

6.3 Operational Techniques of Video Switchers

GVG 110HD Overview
Performing Dissolves
Fader Movement
Automatic Transitions
Execution of the Wipe Transition
Keyed Special Effects with Two and Three Sources

6.4 Advanced Switcher Functions

Digital Effects
Advanced Control

6.5 Video Production Commands

Discussion Questions

Chapter 7:
Video Recording and Playback

7.1 The Video Signal

Special Attributes of the Video Signal
Generational Losses in Videotape

7.2 Analog Video Signal Flow

Control Components
Diagnostic Components

7.3 Digital Video and Servers

Converting Between Analog and Digital
Servers and Networks

7.4 Principles of Videotape Recording

Helical-Scan Videotape Recording
Videotape Track Functions
Time Code

7.5 Video Recorder Operation and Controls

Visual Indicators and Meters

7.6 Video Recorder Performance and Maintenance

Discussion Questions

Chapter 8:
Video Editing

8.1 Comparing Non-Linear and Linear Editing

Advantages of Non-Linear Editing
Disadvantages of Non-Linear Editing

8.2 Types of Editing

Editing Situations
Off-Line and On-Line Editing

8.3 Editing Preparation


8.4 Non-linear Editing

Raw Material—Importing and Digitizing
Editing--Clips and Programs
File Management

8.5 Linear Editing

Linear Editing Configurations
Types of Tape Edits
Linear Editing Techniques

8.6 Editing Aesthetics

When to Edit—Information and Action
Jump Cuts
Screen Direction
Ethics of Editing

Discussion Questions

Chapter 9:
Graphics and Sets

9.1 Pictorial Design Factors

Balance and Mass
Lines and Angles
Tone and Color

9.2 Computer Generated Graphics

Character Generation
Graphics Generation
Electronic Storage
Proprietary vs. PC-Based Systems
NTSC and ATSC Aspect Ratios

9.3 Other Graphics

Using Out-of-Aspect Graphics
Keystoning and Essential Area

9.4 Graphic Aesthetics

Symbol Size
Simplicity and Style
Color Contrast

9.5 Basics of Sets

9.6 Virtual Sets

9.7 Traditional Sets

Constructing and Obtaining Scenic Elements
Assembling and Setting Up Scenic Elements
Storage of Scenic Elements

Discussion Questions

Chapter 10
Interactive Media

10.1 Interactivity and Dynamic Content

10.2 Elements of Interactive Media


10.3 Types of Interactive Media

Stand-Alone Computer Systems
World Wide Web-Based Systems

10.4 Tools of Interactive Media


10.5 Interactive Media Production

Interactive Media Planning
Interactive Media Production

10.6 An Interactive Media Production Example

Discussion Questions

Chapter 11:

11.1 Types of Producers

Executive Producers
Line Producers
Associate Producers

11.2 Idea Generation

Treatments and Proposals
Varying Script Forms

11.3 Budgets

Costs of Productions
Pay Rates
Facilities and Equipment
Constructing and Adhering to the Budget
The Role of the Unit Manager
Budget Overruns

11.4 Personnel

Crew Selection

11.5 Production Paperwork

Copyright Clearance
Record Keeping

11.6 Schedules

11.7 Evaluation

Discussion Questions

Chapter 12:

12.1 The “Manager” Role

Marking the Script
Preparing Shot Sheets
Conducting Rehearsals
Calling Commands

12.2 The “Artist” Role

Shot Juxtaposition
Camera Selection
Shot Relationships

12.3 The “Psychiatrist” Role

New Relationships
Directorial Style

12.4 Production Project: The Discussion Program

Shot Continuity
Camera Blocking
Calling Shots

Discussion Questions

Chapter 13:
Field Production

13.1 Introduction


13.2 Cast and Crew

Crew Size
Cast Considerations
Nonsequential Shooting

13.3 Audio

Control Equipment
Extraneous Noise

13.4 Lighting

Indoor Location Lighting
Outdoor Location Lighting

13.5 Cameras

White Balancing
Camera Mounts and Movement
Camera Care and Maintenance

13.6 Video Recording

Setup and Connections
Taping Procedure

13.7 Editing

The Editing Process
Audio Editing

13.8 Graphics and Sets


13.9 Producing

Finding a Location
Surveying a Location
Stock Footage
Conceptualization and Preproduction Planning
Breakdown Sheets
Shooting Schedule

13.10 Directing

Production Processes
Editing Aesthetics

Discussion Questions

A Wrap-up




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