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Visualizing Human Biology / Edition 4

Visualizing Human Biology / Edition 4

by Kathleen A. Ireland


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 2901118169871
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 09/19/2012
Series: Visualizing Series
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 752
Product dimensions: 9.10(w) x 10.70(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Kathleen Ireland currently teaches biology and anatomy and physiology at a private high school on Maui. In the past she was on the faculties of Maui Community College and Iowa State University where she taught both of these courses. In between her current position and her position at Maui CC, Kathleen worked for Prentice Hall as Media Editor in Applied Biology, leading the team that worked on the technology that accompanied all of Ric Martini’s textbooks. She has pursued advanced studies in both physiology and education, and has a PhD in Curriculum and Instructional Technology, Science Education.

David Tenenbaum has an MA in Science Writing from the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Journalism and Mass Communication. He has written, contributed to and edited many books, including California Geology (McGraw-Hill; contributor); Financial Planning in the Bank (edited); Managing Technology (author). He was co-winner in 2002 of the Science in Society Award from the National Association of Science Writers for his writing in The Why Files

Table of Contents

Introduction to the Study of Life     2
National Geographic videos: The Incredible Human Machine Stem Cell Research
What is Life?     2
Living organisms display nine specific characteristics     4
I Wonder: Are viruses considered living organisms?     5
Living things must maintain homeostasis     6
Health, Wellness, and Disease: Homeostasis and blood chemistry     8
Biological organization is based on structure     9
Biological classification is logical     12
Scientists approach questions using the scientific method     15
Ethics and Issues: Global warming-a human solution to a human problem?     18
Scientific findings often lead to ethical dilemmas     20
Everyday Chemistry of Life     26
Life has a unique chemistry     28
I Wonder: Do I need to take dietary supplements to stay healthy? Will they help me lose weight?     29
Atomic structure is the foundation of life     30
Health, Wellness, and Disease: Radioisotopes in science and medicine     32
Chemistry is a story of bonding     34
Water is life's essential chemical     37
Hydrogen ion concentration affects chemical properties     39
There are four main categories of organic chemicals     41
Ethics and Issues: Aging: making the most of a natural biological process     45
Cells, Organization, and Communication     60
The cell is highly organized     62
I Wonder: How can you see cells?     64
The cell membrane isolates the cell     65
Health, Wellness, and Disease: The science of intravenous fluids     70
The components of a cell are called organelles     72
Cell communication and cell division are important to cellular success     83
Ethics and Issues: Should we try to cure deadly diseases with embryonic stem cells?     85
Tissues     92
Cells are the building blocks of tissues     94
I Wonder: What is arthritis?     102
Health, Wellness, and Disease: Are we making progress in the struggle against cancer?     104
Organization increases with organs, organ systems, and the organism     106
Ethics and Issues: Should we, could we, grow new organs?     108
Scientists use a road map to the human body     110
Movement Through the Environment     118
National Geographic videos: Hugh Herr: A Man with Robotic Limbs The Search for Adam
The Skeletal System     118
The skeletal system is a dynamic living system     120
Ossification forms bone, and remodeling continues to shape it     124
Health, Wellness, and Disease: Healing broken bones     130
The axial skeleton is the center of things     131
Ethics and Issues: How to confront the osteoporosis crisis     137
Your limbs comprise your appendicular skeleton     138
I Wonder: How do forensic scientists learn about someone's movement from the bones?     144
Joints link the skeletal system together     147
The Muscular System     156
The muscular system has many functions     158
Skeletal muscles are contractile organs     159
Muscle contraction occurs as filaments slide past one another     167
Whole-muscle contractions emerge from tiny impulses     172
Muscles require energy to work smoothly and powerfully     175
Health, Wellness, and Disease: Muscle fatigue, muscle woes     178
I Wonder: What are the holistic benefits of physical exercise?     179
Ethics and Issues: The dangers of steroid hormones     180
The Nervous System     186
The nervous system makes sense of everything     188
The nervous system is categorized by function and structure     190
Nerve tissue is made of neurons and glial cells     193
Neurons work through action potentials      194
Health, Wellness, Disease: Psychoactive drugs: getting a good reception at the synapse     201
The brain and spinal cord are central to the nervous system     202
I Wonder: What happens when we learn?     210
Ethics and Issues: Attention deficit Hyperactivity disorder: does drug treatment make sense?     216
The peripheral nervous system operates beyond the central nervous system     218
The Special Senses     228
The special senses tell us about our environment     230
I Wonder: What is the role of odor in emotional communication?     232
Vision is our most acute sense     239
Health, Wellness, and Disease: What are the most common visual impairments?     243
The special senses are our connection to the outside world     247
Ethics and Issues: Being born deaf is not always considered a disability     249
Protection from the Environment     254
National Geographic video: Guns, Germs, and Steel
Defense Against Disease: Stress, Nonspecific Immunity, and the Integumentary System     254
What is stress?     256
The general adaptation syndrome helps overcome stress     258
The skin is the primary physical barrier     261
Ethics and Issues: Skin and society: beauty is only skin deep      264
Health, Wellness, and Disease: Skin cancer     266
I Wonder: Could I be falsely accused based on fingerprint identification?     270
We have other innate physical barriers     272
Chemical barriers can defeat bacteria     274
Other classes of innate defenses alter the environment around the pathogen     276
The Lymphatic System and Specific Immunity     282
The lymphatic system is the center of our immune response     284
I Wonder: When I was diagnosed with mononucleosis, why was I told not to jump around?     290
Specific immunity relies on a deadly series of cells     293
Immunity can be acquired actively or passively     303
Viruses and bacteria cause disease in different ways     306
Ethics and Issues: Are antibiotics being overused on the farm?     309
AIDS and HIV attack the immune system     312
Health, Wellness, and Disease: Lessons of the AIDS epidemic     316
Infectious disease is a global issue     318
Thriving Within the Environment     324
National Geographic video: High Altitude Peoples
The Cardiovascular System     324
The heart ensures continual, 24/7 nutrient delivery     326
Blood vessels and capillary transport involve miles of sophisticated plumbing      335
Ethics and Issues: Ethics of heart replacement     338
Different circulatory pathways have specific purposes     340
Cardiovascular disorders have life-threatening consequences     343
I Wonder: Why do trained athletes have heart attacks?     347
Blood consists of plasma, cells, and other formed elements     348
Blood can suffer many disorders     358
Health, Wellness, and Disease: Sickle cell anemia     360
The Respiratory System: Movement of Air     366
The respiratory system provides us with essential gas exchange as well as vocalization     368
I Wonder: Why are asthma rates going up?     380
In order to respire, air must be moved in and out of the respiratory system     382
External respiration brings supplies for internal respiration     387
Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide requires hemoglobin and plasma     390
Respiratory health is critical to survival     393
Health, Wellness, and Disease: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: why are chronic bronchitis and emphysema so deadly?     395
Ethics and Issues: Tobacco, the universal poison     397
The Digestive System     404
Nutrients are life-sustaining     406
Health, Wellness, and Disease: Atkins diet: will eliminating carbohydrates help me lose weight?     410
The digestive system processes food from start to finish     416
Digestion is both mechanical and chemical     433
Nutritional health and eating disorders: You truly are what you eat     436
Ethics and Issues: What is an ideal weight? How far should you go to look skinny?     437
I Wonder: Are E. coli bacteria hazardous to my health?     438
The Urinary System     444
The urinary system filters, transports, and stores waste products     446
Urine is formed through filtration and osmosis     452
Health, Wellness, and Disease: How much water should I drink?     454
Urine is transported to the bladder for storage     458
The urinary system maintains the body's water-salt balance     462
I Wonder: Why do they keep telling me to cut down on salt?     464
The kidneys help maintain the blood's acid-base balance     466
Life-threatening diseases affect the urinary system     468
Ethics and Issues: How does a urine test prove drug abuse?     469
Populating the Environment     476
National Geographic video: The Incredible Human Machine: The Miracle of Conception
The Endocrine System and Development     476
Hormones are chemical messengers      478
The endocrine glands secrete directly into the bloodstream     483
Ethics and Issues: Is being short a disease? What are the ethics of human growth hormone?     488
Health, Wellness, and Disease: Diabetes: what is it, and why is it so common?     494
I Wonder: Can I figure out my own basal metabolic rate?     498
Development takes us from Infancy to adulthood     500
The Reproductive Systems: Maintaining the Species     510
Survival of the species depends on reproduction and gamete formation     512
Structures of the male reproductive system produce and store sperm     515
The female reproductive system is responsible for housing and nourishing the developing baby     526
I Wonder: Can PMS really cause mood swings and emotional outbursts?     534
The orgasm is a moment of emotional and physiological epiphany     537
Sexually transmitted diseases can be a side effect of sexual contact     538
Health, Wellness, and Disease: STDs: The science of prevention     539
There are many birth control choices, none of them perfect     540
Ethics and Issues: Should we clone humans?     546
Pregnancy: Development from embryo to newborn     552
Fertilization creates an entire diploid genome     554
I Wonder: What causes twins, and how do they contribute to the study of genetics and human development?     556
The fertilized egg becomes a blastocyst     558
The embryonic stage is marked by growth and differentiation     562
Fetal development occupies the second and third trimesters     570
Health, Wellness, and Disease: Why are drug regulators so cautious about the effects of drugs on the unborn?     572
Labor initiates the end of pregnancy and the beginning of infancy     577
Ethics and Issues: Prematurity: how young is too young?     580
Adapting to and Affecting the Environment     588
National Geographic video: Strange Days on Planet Earth: Saharan Dust
Inheritance, Genetics, and Molecular Biology     588
Plant and animal traits are inherited in specific patterns     590
Modern genetics uncovers a more complicated picture     595
The central dogma of genetics is still accurate     599
Genetic counseling puts genetic theory to practical use     602
I Wonder: Why are tortoise shell cats always female?     604
Ethics and Issues: Ethics of prenatal genetic testing     608
Biotechnology and DNA: The facts, the pros, and the cons     609
Health, Wellness, and Disease: Are genetically modified foods safe for the environment? Are they healthy to eat?      617
Evolution     628
The theory of evolution through natural selection is the foundation of biology     630
I Wonder: How did Darwin figure out his theory of evolution?     634
Evolution is backed by abundant evidence     636
Natural selection has far-reaching effects on populations     644
Health, Wellness, and Disease: Does environmental change cause civilizations to disappear?     646
Mass extinctions can be followed by regrowth     647
Ethics and Issues: Why should endangered species matter to me?     648
Amazingly, a planet forms and life begins     650
The human family tree is a confusing one     656
Ecology and Societal Issues     664
Ecosystems define plants and animals living together     667
Organisms have specific habitats and niches     671
Carrying capacity and population growth are regulated by the environment     673
Organisms are either producers or consumers     676
Energy flows through an ecosystem while chemicals cycle     678
Health, Wellness, and Disease: Could vegetarianism help feed the world?     684
Ethics and Issues: How bad is the freshwater crisis?     688
Humans have a tremendous impact on the environment     695
I Wonder: Where does all the garbage go?     697
Periodic Table     708
Measurements     709
Answers to Self Tests     711
Glossary     713
Credits     732
Index     738

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