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Cengage Learning
Voices of Wisdom: A Multicultural Philosophy Reader / Edition 8

Voices of Wisdom: A Multicultural Philosophy Reader / Edition 8

by Gary E. Kessler


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781111834678
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Publication date: 01/01/2012
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 656
Product dimensions: 7.30(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.10(d)

About the Author

Gary E. Kessler received his Ph.D. from Columbia University where he studied philosophy and comparative religions. After teaching at Bard College, he accepted a position at California State University, Bakersfield where he taught for over thirty years. His most recent research centers on religion and violence. He is the author of numerous articles and books, including VOICES OF WISDOM, which, when first published in 1992, was the first multicultural textbook and reader intended for use in an introductory philosophy class.

Table of Contents

Part IIntroduction1
Chapter 1What Is Philosophy?2
1.1A Definition of Philosophy2
1.2What Is Rationality?7
1.3Does Philosophy Bake Bread?12
Bertrand Russell: On the Value of Philosophy14
Chapter 2How Should We Read Philosophy?19
2.1Getting Started19
2.2The Critical Precis21
2.3A Test Case23
Lawrence A. Blum: Antiracism, Multiculturalism, and Interracial Community: Three Educational Values for a Multicultural Society25
Part IIEthics33
Chapter 3How Should One Live?34
3.2The Buddha and the Middle Way36
The Buddha: The Four Noble Truths37
Walpola Rahula: The Fourth Noble Truth39
3.3Confucius and the Life of Virtue43
D. C. Lau: Confucius and Moral Character45
3.4Socrates on Living the Examined Life51
Plato: The Apology53
3.5Aristotle on Happiness and the Life of Moderation67
Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics69
3.6The Song of God77
3.7.Does Life Have Meaning?86
Daniel Kolak and Raymond Martin: Meaning87
Chapter 4How Can I Know What Is Right?93
4.2Kant and the Categorical Imperative94
Immanuel Kant: Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals96
Jeremy Bentham: Of the Principle of Utility103
4.4Revaluation of Values107
Friedrich Nietzsche: Beyond Good and Evil109
Friedrich Nietzsche: On the Genealogy of Morality114
4.5Toward a Feminist Ethic119
Rita Manning: Just Caring121
4.6Some African and Western Conceptions of Morals137
Kwasi Wiredu: Custom and Morality139
Chapter 5What Makes a Society Just?152
5.2God and Justice153
Majid Khadduri: The Islamic Conception of Justice156
5.3Capitalism and Exploitation163
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: Manifesto of the Communist Party165
5.4The Original Position174
John Rawls: A Theory of Justice175
5.5Our Obligation to the State187
Plato: Crito188
5.6Civil Disobedience195
Martin Luther King, Jr.: Letter from Birmingham Jail197
5.7Sovereignty and Justice: An Indigenist's Viewpoint207
Ward Churchill: Perversions of Justice208
Chapter 6Is Justice for All Possible?219
6.2Universal Human Rights220
Rene Trujillo: Human Rights in the "Age of Discovery"221
United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights223
6.3Are Human Rights Universal?227
Xiaorong Li: "Asian Values" and the Universality of Human Rights228
6.4Racism and Feminism234
bell hooks: Ain't I a Woman235
6.5The Affirmative Action Debate244
Warren Kessler: Is Affirmative Action a Second Wrong?245
Shelby Steele: The Price of Preference250
6.6The Animal Rights Debate256
Tom Regan: The Case for Animal Rights257
Mary Anne Warren: Difficulties with the Strong Animal Rights Position264
6.7Environmental Ethics271
J. Baird Callicott and Thomas W. Overholt: Traditional American Indian Attitudes Toward Nature272
6.8Development, Environment, and the Third World289
Ramachandra Guha: Radical American Environmentalism and Wilderness Preservation290
6.9International Business Ethics298
David M. Adams and Edward W. Maine: International Competition and Corporate Social Responsibility300
Part IIIEpistemology307
Chapter 7Is Knowledge Possible?308
7.2Sufi Mysticism310
Al-Ghazali: Deliverance from Error312
7.3Is Certainty Possible?319
Rene Descartes: Meditations I and II322
7.4Empiricism and Limited Skepticism328
David Hume: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding331
7.5Should We Believe Beyond the Evidence?337
William K. Clifford: The Ethics of Belief339
William James: The Will to Believe341
7.6Classical Indian Epistemology346
D. M. Datta: Knowledge and the Methods of Knowledge348
7.7Afrocentric Feminist Epistemology352
Patricia Hill Collins: Toward an Afrocentric Feminist Epistemology354
Chapter 8Does Science Tell Us the Whole Truth and Nothing But the Truth?363
8.2Science and Common Sense364
Ernest Nagel: The Structure of Science365
8.3Scientific Revolutions374
Thomas S. Kuhn: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions376
8.4Feminism and Science387
Elizabeth Anderson: Knowledge, Human Interests, and Objectivity in Feminist Epistemology389
8.5Japanese Views of Western Science401
Thomas P. Kasulis: Sushi, Science, and Spirituality403
8.6Science and Traditional Thought416
Kwame Anthony Appiah: Old Gods, New Worlds418
Part IVMetaphysics427
Chapter 9What Is Really Real?428
9.2The Dao430
Laozi: Dao De Jing433
9.3Platonic Dualism440
Plato: The Republic443
Shankara: The Crest-Jewel of Discrimination451
9.5Subjective Idealism459
George Berkeley: The Principles of Human Knowledge461
Paul M. Churchland: Eliminative Materialism467
9.7Pre-Columbian Cosmologies475
Jorge Valadez: Pre-Columbian Philosophical Perspectives477
9.8So What Is Real?483
Jorge Luis Borges: The Circular Ruins484
Chapter 10Are We Free or Determined?488
10.2We Are Determined489
Robert Blatchford: Not Guilty490
10.3We Are Free495
Jean-Paul Sartre: Existentialism496
10.4Karma and Freedom504
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan: Karma and Freedom506
10.5We Are Both Free and Determined509
Raymond M. Smullyan: Is God a Taoist?511
Chapter 11What Am I? Who Am I?519
11.2You Are Your Mind522
Rene Descartes: Meditation VI524
Rene Descartes and Princess Elisabeth: Correspondence with Princess Elisabeth, Concerning the Union of Mind and Body530
11.3You Are an Embodied Self534
Eve Browning Cole: Body, Mind, and Gender535
11.4There Is No Self544
False Doctrines About the Soul and the Simile of the Chariot547
11.5What Is Consciousness?549
Colin McGinn: Can We Ever Understand Consciousness?551
11.6How Much Can I Change and Still Be Me?560
Jeffry Olen: Personal Identity and Life After Death561
11.7Social Identity571
Gloria Anzaldua: How to Tame a Wild Tongue572
Chapter 12Is There a God?579
12.2Cosmological Arguments580
Maimonides: Guide for the Perplexed583
St. Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologica589
12.3The Origin of the Universe According to Modern Science596
Victor Weisskopf: The Origin of the Universe592
12.4Creationism Vs. Evolution601
Richard Dawkins: The Blind Watchmaker603
12.5An Ontological Argument for God's Existence613
St. Anselm and Gaunilo: A Debate615
12.6The Gender of God617
Mary Daly: Beyond God the Father619
Appendix IGlossary627
Appendix IIPronunciation Guide636

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