Water Lifting Devices: A handbook for users and choosers

Water Lifting Devices: A handbook for users and choosers

by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Jeremy Thake, Jeremy Thake


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789251054307
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publication date: 04/28/2007
Edition description: REV
Pages: 350
Product dimensions: 8.25(w) x 11.75(h) x 0.80(d)

About the Author

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Table of Contents

Foreword     ix
Preface     x
Acknowledgements     xi
Introduction     1
Scope and purpose of this book     1
Importance of water and water lifting devices     1
Drinking water     2
Water for irrigation     3
Water lifting and the environment     5
Water lifting and development     6
The choice of water lifting technique     7
Drinking Water Supplies     9
Planning for human and livestock water supplies     9
Community involvement     9
Village level operation and management of maintenance     10
Gender issues     11
Perceived benefits     11
Economic and financial factors     11
Hygiene and health considerations     12
Water requirements for humans and livestock     14
Human water supplies     14
Livestock water supplies     14
Water Lifting for Small-Scale Irrigation     16
Water management     16
Outline of principles of small-scale irrigation     17
Above-ground application methods     17
Below-ground application methods     18
Irrigationwater requirements     20
Net irrigation requirement     20
Gross irrigation requirement     21
Pumping requirement     22
Water Sources     25
Choosing a water source     26
Surface water     26
Springs     28
Wells     29
Boreholes or tubewells     29
Draw-down and seasonal variations of water level     31
Water quality     33
Water quality for community water supply     33
Water quality for irrigation     35
Water treatment     36
Storage and settlement     36
Filtration     37
Disinfecting and sterilization     40
Removal of minerals     40
Correction of acidity     41
Water storage     41
Fundamental Physical Principles of Water Lifting     42
Suction lift: the atmospheric limit     42
Definitions of energy, work, power and efficiency     43
System losses     44
Flow through channels and pipes     46
Channels     46
Pipes     49
Efficiency of components: the importance of matching     53
Practical power requirements     55
Review of a complete pumping system     58
Review of Pumps and Water Lifting Techniques     63
Principles for lifting and moving water     63
Classification of water lifts and pumps     63
Reciprocating and cyclic direct lift devices     66
Watering cans, buckets, scoops, bailers and the swing-basket     66
Suspended scoop, see-sawing gutters (dhones or doons) and the counterpoise-lift (shadoof)     66
Bucket hoists, windlasses, mohtes and water skips     67
Rotary direct lift devices     70
Bucket elevators: Persian wheels and norias     71
Improved Persian wheel: zawaffa or jhallar     72
Scoop-wheels: drum-wheel, tympanum, sakia, or tablia     73
Coil and spiral pumps     74
Reciprocating positive displacement pumps     75
Basic principles     76
Single-acting piston pumps     88
Double-acting piston pumps and plunger pumps     99
Diaphragm pumps     99
Gas displacement pumps     101
Rotary positive displacement pumps     103
Paddle-wheels, treadmills and flash-wheels     105
Archimedes' screw and open screw pumps     105
Water ladders and dragon-spine pumps     107
Rope and washer, rope and rag, chain and washer, or paternoster pumps     110
Progressive cavity, helical rotor or mono pumps     113
Vane pumps, gear pumps, lobe pumps and peristaltic pumps     115
Reciprocating inertia pumps     115
Flap valve pump     116
Resonant joggle pump     117
Pulsa pump     118
Rotodynamic pumps     118
Basic principles     118
The various type of rotodynamic pump     121
Rotodynamic pump characteristics and impeller types     123
Centrifugal pumps     128
Axial-flow or propeller pumps     131
Mixed-flow pumps     133
Multi-stage and borehole rotodynamic pumps     134
Self-priming rotodynamic pumps     135
Self-priming jet pumps     140
Air-lift pumps     141
Water-hammer or impulse devices: the hydraulic ram pump or hydram     142
Basic principles     144
Construction     147
Ram pump operation     148
Gravity devices     150
Siphons     150
Qanats and foggara     151
Materials for water-lifting devices      151
Ferrous metals     153
Non-ferrous metals     155
Plastics     156
Timber and bamboo     157
Summary review of water lifting devices     159
Power for Pumping     163
Prime movers as part of a pumping system     163
Importance of 'cost-effectiveness'     163
Transmission systems     168
Fuels and energy storage     170
Human power     171
Human beings as power sources     171
Traditional water lifting devices     175
Hand-operated pumps     177
Foot-operated pumps     182
Animal power     184
Power capabilities of various species     185
Food requirements     187
Coupling animals to water lifting systems     187
Internal combustion engines     191
Petrol or Diesel     192
Four-stroke or two-stroke     194
Air or Water Cooling     195
Cylinder arrangement     195
Relationship between size, speed and durability     196
De-rating     197
Special features and accessories     197
Installation     198
Efficiency of engine-powered pumping systems     198
External combustion engines     202
Steam engines     203
Stirling engines     205
Electrical power     206
Sources and types of electricity     208
AC mains power     209
Electric motors     210
Electrical safety     212
Wind Power     212
Background and state-of-the-art     212
The wind resource     218
Principles of wind energy conversion     228
Windpump performance estimation     240
Solar power     243
Background and state-of-the-art     244
The solar energy resource     246
Photovoltaic systems     247
Thermodynamic systems     259
Water power     261
The use of water power for pumping     261
General principles     263
The water power resource     263
General types of turbine for water lifting     268
Chinese turbine-pumps     270
Hydraulic Ram Pump (or Hydram)     272
Water wheels and norias     274
River current turbines     275
Biomass and coal (non-petroleum fuels)      278
The availability and distribution of fuels     278
The nature and calorific value of fuels     280
The potential for using biomass to fuel irrigation pumps     281
Technical options for using biomass fuels for irrigation pumping     282
Direct combustion of solid biomass fuels     283
Gasification of solid biomass fuels     284
Liquid biomass fuels     289
Gaseous biomass fuels     290
The Choice of Pumping Systems     297
Financial and economic considerations     297
Calculation of costs and benefits: present values and discounted cash flow     298
Defining the variables: discount rate, period, costs and benefits     302
Financial comparison methods     303
Economic analysis     304
A procedure for a cost appraisal of an irrigation pumping system     304
Example: comparison of petrol, diesel, wind and solar-powered pumps     305
Relative economics of different options     307
Conclusions to be drawn from economic analysis     314
Practical considerations     316
Status or availability of the technology     316
Capital cost versus recurrent costs     317
Operational convenience      317
Skill requirements for installation, operation and maintenance     318
Durability, reliability and useful life     319
Efficiency     319
Potential for local manufacture     319
Conversion of Common Units of Measurement     320
Glossary     321
References     324
Further Information     328
Index     329

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