ISBN-10:
0387820434
ISBN-13:
9780387820439
Pub. Date:
09/28/1988
Publisher:
Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
Welding Metallurgy of Stainless Steels

Welding Metallurgy of Stainless Steels

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780387820439
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
Publication date: 09/28/1988
Pages: 279
Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 1.50(h) x 9.50(d)

Table of Contents

1 Significance of Constitution Diagrams for the Understanding of Welding Phenomena.- 1.1 Iron-Chromium, Iron-Nickel and Chromium-Nickel Constitution Diagrams.- 1.2 The Ternary Iron-Chromium-Nickel Constitution Diagram.- 1.2.1 Solidification and Crystallization Phenomena of Iron-Chromium- Nickel Steel Alloys.- 1.2.2 Phenomena During Cooling from the End of Solidification to Ambient Temperature.- 1.3 Influence of Other Elements on the Iron-Chromium-Nickel Constitution Diagram.- 1.3.1 Influence of Carbon.- 1.3.2 Influence of Nitrogen.- 1.3.3 Influence of Molybdenum.- 1.3.4 Influence of Manganese.- 1.3.5 Influence of Niobium.- 1.3.6 Influence of Titanium.- 1.3.7 Influence of Silicon.- 1.3.8 Influence of Sulphur.- 1.3.9 Influence of Phosphorus.- 1.3.10 Influence of Copper.- 1.3.11 Influence of Boron.- 1.3.12 Influence of Oxygen.- 1.3.13 Influence of Hydrogen.- 2 Metallurgical Processes Occurring During Solidification and Cooling in Stainless Steel Weld Metal.- 2.1 Primary Crystallization of Weld Pools.- 2.2 Primary Crystallization of Binary and Ternary Systems.- 2.3 Phenomena at the Liquid-Solid Interface (Solidification Front).- 2.4 Crystal Growth During Solidification and Crystal Configurations.- 2.5 Primary Crystallization of Stainless Steel Weld Metals.- 2.6 Cooling Rate and Thermal Supercooling During Solidification of Stainless Steel Weld Metal.- 2.7 Segregations in Stainless Steel Weld Metal During Solidification.- 3 Metallurgical Phenomena in Secondary Crystallization of Stainless Steels and Weld Metals.- 3.1 Recrystallization of Weld Metal.- 3.2 ?-? Transformation of Stainless Steel Weld Metal.- 3.3 Schaeffler Diagram, Ferrite Measurement, DeLong Diagram.- 3.4 ?-? Transformation of Stainless Steel Alloys.- 3.4.1 Transformation in the Pearlite Range.- 3.4.2 Transformation in the Martensite Range.- 3.4.3 Formation of Stable Austenite During Tempering.- 4 Precipitation Phenomena in Stainless Steels and Weld Metals.- 4.1 Carbide Precipitations in Stainless Steels with Special Consideration to Intergranular Corrosion.- 4.1.1 Influence of the Type of Structure on the Tendency Towards Carbide Precipitation in Stainless Steels.- 4.1.2 Influence of Alloying Elements on. Carbide Precipitation and Intergranular Corrosion (IC) in Austenitic Stainless Chromium-Nickel Steels.- 4.1.2.1 Influence of Carbon and Nickel.- 4.1.2.2 Influence of Silicon.- 4.1.2.3 Influence of Chromium.- 4.1.2.4 Influence of Nitrogen.- 4.1.2.5 Influence of Molybdenum.- 4.1.2.6 Influence of Titanium and Niobium.- 4.1.2.7 Influence of Manganese.- 4.1.3 Carbide Precipitation in Ferritic, Low Carbon Martensitic and Austenitic-Ferritic (Duplex) Steels.- 4.1.3.1 Ferritic Stainless Chromium Steels.- 4.1.3.2 Low Carbon Cr-Ni Martensitic Stainless Steels (Soft Martensitic Steels).- 4.1.3.3 Austenitic-Ferritic (Duplex) Steels with Low Carbon Contents.- 4.1.4 Carbide Precipitations in Stainless Steel Weld Metal and in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ).- 4.1.4.1 Knife Line Corrosion in Weldments Made from Stabilized Austenitic Stainless Steels after Heat Treatment in the Temperature Range of 500–700° C.- 4.1.4.2 Increased Intergranular Corrosion in Weld Metal Due to Segregations and Phase Separations.- 4.1.4.3 Ferrite Track Corrosion in Austenitic Weld Metal.- 4.2 The Precipitation of Intermetallic Phases in Stainless Steels and Weld Metals.- 4.2.1 The Precipitation of Sigma Phase in Austenitic Stainless Steels and Weld Metals.- 4.2.2 The Precipitation of Sigma Phase in Ferritic and Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steels.- 4.2.3 The Precipitation of Sigma Phase in Austenitic, Austenitic-Ferritic and Ferritic Stainless Steel Weld Metals.- 4.2.4 The Precipitation of Intermetallic Phases in Chromium-Nickel- Molybdenum Stainless Steels and Weld Metals.- 4.3 475° C Embrittlement in Stainless Steels and Stainless Steel Weld Metals.- 5 Hot Cracking Resistance During the Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steels.- 5.1 Formation of Hot Cracks.- 5.1.1 Formation Mechanics of Solidification Cracks.- 5.1.2 Formation Mechanics of Liquation Cracks.- 5.2 Hot Cracking Tests.- 5.2.1 Hot Cracking Tests for the Determination of the Critical Deformation Rate in the Welding Zone.- 5.2.2 The Program Controlled Deformation Cracking Test (PVR Test).- 5.3 Criteria which Influence the Hot Cracking Susceptibility of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weldments.- 5.3.1 Influence of Primary Solidification on the Hot Cracking Behaviour of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metal.- 5.3.2 Influence of the Residual Delta Ferrite Content on the Hot Cracking Behaviour.- 5.3.3 Influence of Alloying Elements and Impurities which Promote Hot Cracking.- 5.3.4 Hot Cracking Sensitivity of Fully Austenitic Weld Metal.- 5.3.5 Influence of Welding Parameters and Material Thickness on the Hot Cracking Sensitivity of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weldments.- 6 Welding Metallurgy of Ferritic Stainless Chromium Steels with Carbon Contents Below 0.15%.- 6.1 Practical Welding of Stainless Chromium Steels.- 6.2 Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel Weld Metals with 12 and 17% Chromium.- 6.3 Precipitation Phenomena in Ferritic Stainless Chromium Steels and Weld Metals.- 7 Welding Metallurgy of Low Carbon Chromium-Nickel Martensitic Stainless Steels (Soft Martensitic Steels).- 7.1 Practical Welding of Low Carbon Martensitic Stainless Steels.- 7.2 Mechanical Properties of Low Carbon Martensitic Stainless Steel Weld Metal.- 7.3 Precipitation Phenomena in Low Carbon Soft Martensitic Stainless Steels and Weld Metals.- 8 Welding Metallurgy of Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steels.- 8.1 Practical Welding of Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steels.- 8.2 Mechanical Properties of Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steel Weld Metal.- 8.3 Precipitation Phenomena in Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steels and Weld Metals.- 9 Welding Metallurgy of Austenitic Stainless Steels.- 9.1 Welding Metallurgy of Unstabilized Austenitic Stainless Steels.- 9.1.1 Practical Welding of Unstabilized Austenitic Stainless Steels.- 9.1.2 Mechanical Properties of Unstabilized Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metal.- 9.1.3 Precipitation Phenomena in Unstabilized Austenitic Stainless Steels and Weld Metals.- 9.2 Welding Metallurgy of Stabilized Austenitic Stainless Steels.- 9.2.1 Practical Welding of Stabilized Austenitic Stainless Steels.- 9.2.2 Mechanical Properties of Stabilized Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metal.- 9.2.3 Precipitation Phenomena in Stabilized Austenitic Stainless Steels and Weld Metals.- 9.3 Welding Metallurgy of Fully Austenitic Stainless Steels.- 9.3.1 Practical Welding of Fully Austenitic Stainless Steels with Fully Austenitic Stainless Steel Filler Metals.- 9.3.2 Mechanical Properties of Fully Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metal.- 9.3.3 Precipitation Phenomena in Fully Austenitic Stainless Steels and Weld Metals.- 10 General Instructions for the Welding and Post-Weld Surface Treatments of Fabrications and Welded Components Made from Austenitic Stainless Steel.- 10.1 Welding Procedure.- 10.2 Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel Castings.- 10.3 Post Weld Surface Treatments.- 11 Welding Metallurgy of Heat Resisting Steels.- 12 Welding Metallurgy of Austenitic-Ferritic Dissimilar Joints.- 12.1 Selection of Filler Metals and Importance of Dilution.- 12.2 Practical Welding of Austenitic-Ferritic Dissimilar Joints.- 12.3 Criteria for the Heat Treatment of Austenitic-Ferritic Dissimilar Joints.- 12.4 Mechanical Properties of Austenitic-Ferritic Dissimilar Joints.- Appendix (Abbreviations and Short Designations).- References.- Author Index.

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