Western Civilization: Sources, Images, and Interpretations

Western Civilization: Sources, Images, and Interpretations

by Dennis Sherman



Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780070570597
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Publication date: 10/01/1994

About the Author

Dennis Sherman is Professor of History at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, the City University of New York. He received his B.A. (1962) and J.D. (1965) degrees from the University of California at Berkeley and his Ph.D. (1970) from the University of Michigan . . He was Visiting Professor at the University of Paris (1978-79; 1985). He has received the Ford Foundation Prize Fellowship, the Council for Research on Economic History fellowship, and fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities. His publications include A Short History of Western Civilization, 8th edition (co-author); Western Civilization: Sources, Images, and Interpretations, 5th edition; World Civilizations: Sources, Images, and Interpretations, 2nd Edition (co-author); a series of introductions in the Garland Library of War and Peace; several articles and reviews on nineteenth-century French economic and social history in American and European journals, and short stories on literary reviews.

Table of Contents

Preface     xv
Using this Book     xvii
The Early Modern Period
Aristocracy and Absolutism in the Seventeenth Century
Primary Sources
Using Primary Sources: Austria Over All If She Only Will: Mercantilism     4
Austria Over All If She Only Will: Mercantilism     5
The Great Elector, A Secret Letter: Monarchical Authority in Prussia     6
Memoires: The Aristocracy Undermined in France     6
Second Treatise of Civil Government: Legislative Power     7
Visual Sources
Using Visual Sources: The Early Modern Chateau 8
The Early Modern Chateau (figure)     9
Maternal Care (figure)     9
Secondary Sources
Using Secondary Sources: Absolutism: Myth And Reality     10
Absolutism: Myth and Reality     11
The English Revolution, 1688-1689     12
Centuries of Childhood     13
The World We Have Lost: The Early Modern Family     13
The Scientific Revolution
Primary Sources
The Discourse on Method     16
Letter to Christina of Tuscany: Science and Scripture     16
The Papal Inquisition of 1633: Galileo Condemned     17
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy     18
Visual Sources
A Vision of the New Science (figure)     18
The Anatomy Lesson of Dr.Tulp (figure)     18
Secondary Sources
Why Was Science Backward in the Middle Ages?     19
Early Modern Europe: Motives for the Scientific Revolution     21
No Scientific Revolution for Women     22
Politics and Society in the Ancien Regime
Primary Sources
Political Testament     24
The Complete English Tradesman     25
The Slave Trade     26
Letter to Lady R., 1716: Women and the Aristocracy     27
Women of the Third Estate     28
Visual Sources
Happy Accidents of the Swing (figure)     28
Act of Humanity (figure)     29
The Battle of Fontenoy (text and figure)     29
The Atlantic Slave Trade (chart)     30
Secondary Sources
Slavery-White, Black, Muslim, Christian     31
The Ancien Regime: Ideals and Realities     32
The Resurgent Aristocracy     32
Lords and Peasants     33
Women's Work in Preindustrial Europe     34
The Enlightenment
Primary Sources
What Is Enlightenment?     38
The System of Nature     39
Prospectus for the Encyclopedia of Arts and Sciences     39
The Philosophe     40
Philosophical Dictionary: The English Model     41
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman     42
The Age of Reason: Deism     42
The Social Contract     43
Visual Sources
Frontispiece of the Encyclopedie (figure)     44
Experiment with an Air Pump (figure)     44
Propaganda and the Enlightened Monarch (text and figure)     45
Secondary Sources
The Age of Enlightenment     47
The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth-Century Philosophers     48
Women in the Salons     49
The Problem of Enlightened Absolutism     49
The Nineteenth Century
The French Revolution
Primary Sources
Travels in France: Signs of Revolution     54
The Cahiers: Discontents of the Third Estate     55
What Is the Third Estate?     55
Revolutionary Legislation: Abolition of the Feudal System     56
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen     57
Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen     58
The Declaration of Independence     59
Speech to the National Convention-February 5, 1794: The Terror Justified     60
A Soldier's Letters to His Mother: Revolutionary Nationalism     61
Visual Sources
Allegory of the Revolution (figure)     61
Henri de la Rochjacquelein (figure)      62
Internal Disturbances and the Reign of Terror (maps and charts)     63
Secondary Sources
The Coming of the French Revolution     65
The Revolution of the Notables     66
Loaves and Liberty: Women in the French Revolution     67
An Evaluation of the French Revolution     68
The Age of Napoleon
Primary Sources
Memoirs: Napoleon's Appeal     72
Memoirs: Napoleon's Secret Police     72
Napoleon's Diary     73
Visual Sources
Napoleon Crossing the Alps (figure)     74
Bonaparte Visiting the Plague Victims at Jaffa (figure)     74
Secondary Sources
France Under Napoleon: Napoleon as Enlightened Despot     75
Napoleon Bonaparte and the Legacy of the French Revolution     77
Women and the Napoleonic Code     78
Industrialization and Social Change
Primary Sources
Testimony for the Factory Act of 1833: Working Conditions in England     82
Sybil, or the Two Nations: Mining Towns     83
The Condition of the Working Class in England     84
Self-Help: Middle-Class Attitudes     85
Father Goriot: Money and the Middle Class     86
Woman in Her Social and Domestic Character     87
Women and the Working Class     88
Visual Sources
Gare Saint Lazare (figure)     88
Iron and Coal (figure)     89
Illustration from Life and Adventures of Michael Armstrong (figure)     90
Industrialization and Demographic Change (maps)     90
Secondary Sources
The Making of Economic Society: England, the First to Industrialize     91
The Industrial Revolution in Russia     92
Early Industrial Society: Progress or Decline!     93
The Family and Industrialization in Western Europe     94
Reaction, Reform, Revolution, and Romanticism: 1815-1848
Primary Sources
Secret Memorandum to Tsar Alexander I, 1820: Conservative Principles     98
The Carlsbad Decrees, 1819: Conservative Repression     99
English Liberalism     100
The Economist, 1851, Liberalism: Progress and Optimism     102
The First Chartist Petition: Demands for Change in England     102
Annual Register, 1848, An Eyewitness Account of the Revolutions of 1848 in Germany     103
The Tables Turned: The Glories of Nature     104
Visual Sources
Abbey Graveyard in the Snow (figure)     104
The Genius of Christianity (text)     105
Liberty Leading the People: Romanticism and Liberalism (figure)     106
Working Class Disappointments: Rue Transnonain, April 15, 1834 (figure)      107
Secondary Sources
The Congress of Vienna     108
Western Liberalism     108
The European Revolutions, 1848-1851     109
The Revolutions of 1848     110
The National State, Nationalism, and Imperialism: 1850-1914
Primary Sources
The Duties of Man     114
Militant Nationalism     115
Does Germany Need Colonies?     116
The White Man's Burden     117
Controlling Africa: The Standard Treaty     118
Visual Sources
Imperialism Glorified (figure)     119
American Imperialism in Asia: Independence Day 1899 (figure)     120
Imperialism in Africa (maps)     120
Secondary Sources
A Sterner Plan for Italian Unity: Nationalism, Liberalism, and Conservatism     123
German Unification     124
The Age of Empire     125
Imperialism as a Nationalistic Phenomenon     125
The Tools of Empire     126
Gender and Empire     127
Culture, Thought, and Society: 1850-1914
Primary Sources
The Origin of Species and The Descent of Man     130
Social Statics: Liberalism and Social Darwinism     131
On Liberty     131
Our Sisters, Women as Chemists [Pharmacists]     133
The Communist Manifesto     133
Socialist Women: Becoming a Socialist     135
Why We Are Militant     136
Syllabus of Errors     136
Foundations of the Nineteenth Century: Racism     137
Judaism in Music: Anti-Semitism     138
Visual Sources
The Hatch Family: The Upper Middle Class (figure)     138
The Ages of Woman (figure)     139
Lunch Hour: The Working Class (figure)     139
The Stages of a Worker's Life (figure)     140
The City (figure)     141
Secondary Sources
The Decline of Political Liberalism     141
The Unfinished Revolution: Marxism Interpreted     142
European Women     143
1914 to the Present
War and Revolution: 1914-1920
Primary Sources
Reports from the Front: The Battle for Verdun, 1916     148
Dulce et Decorum Est: Disillusionment     148
The Home Front     149
Program of the Provisional Government in Russia     150
April Theses: The Bolshevik Opposition     150
Speech to the Petrograd Soviet-November 8, 1917: The Bolsheviks in Power     151
The Fourteen Points     151
Visual Sources
World War I: The Front Lines (figure)     153
The Paths of Glory (figure)      153
World War I: The Home Front and Women (figure and charts)     154
Revolutionary Propaganda (figure)     156
Secondary Sources
The Origins of World War I: Militant Patriotism     156
Germany and the Coming of War     157
The Revolution in War and Diplomacy     158
Women, Work, and World War I     158
Peace and Diplomacy     159
The Russian Revolution     160
Democracy, Depression, and Instability: The 1920s and 1930s
Primary Sources
The Road Back     162
Restless Days     162
With Germany's Unemployed     163=970 14   Program of the Popular Front-January 11, 1936     164
The Revolt of the Masses     165
Civilization and Its Discontents     165
Visual Sources
Decadence in the Weimar Republic (figure)     167
Unemployment and Politics in the Weimar Republic (charts)     167
Unemployment During the Great Depression, 1930-1938 (chart)     168
Unemployment and the Appeal to Women (figure)     169
Secondary Sources
The Generation of 1914: Disillusionment     169
Government and the Governed: The Interwar Years     170
The Great Depression in Europe     171
Communism, Fascism, and Authoritarianism
Primary Sources
The Doctrine of Fascism     174
Mein Kampf     175
Nazi Propaganda Pamphlet     177
The German Woman and National Socialism [Nazism]     178
The Theory and Practice of Hell: The Nazi Elite     178
The Informed Heart: Nazi Concentration Camps     179
Witness to the Holocaust     179
Problems of Agrarian Policy in the U.S.S.R.: Soviet Collectivization     180
Report to the Congress of Soviets, 1936: Soviet Democracy     181
Visual Sources
Nazi Mythology (figure)     182
Socialist Realism (figure)     182
Authoritarianism and Totalitarianism, 1919-1937 (map)     182
Secondary Sources
Fascism in Western Europe     184
The Rise of Fascism     185
Hitler and Nazism     186
Hitler's Willing Executioners     187
Dictatorship in Russia: Stalin's Purges     188
World War II and the Postwar World
Primary Sources
The Battle of Britain     192
A German Solier at Stalingrad     192
The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan     193
The Cold War: A Soviet Perspective     194
The Berlin Wall     195
British Labor's Rise to Power      196
The General Assembly of the United Nations, Declaration Against Colonialism     197
The Balfour Declaration, U.N. Resolution 242, and A Palestinian Memoir: Israel, Palestine, and the Middle East     198
The Second Sex     200
A Feminist Manifesto     200
Visual Sources
The Destruction of Europe (map)     202
The Cold War and European Integration (map)     203
Decolonization in Asia and Africa (map)     204
Televised Violence (figure)     204
Number 1 (figure and text)     205
Secondary Sources
Appeasement at Munich Attacked     206
The Origins of the Second World War: Appeasement Defended     207
A World at Arms     207
Origins of the Cold War     209
The Positive Role of the United Nations in a Split World     209
The Wretched of the Earth     210
The Present in Perspective
The Short Century--It's Over     214
The End of the Cold War     215
After Communism: Causes for the Collapse     216
The Collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe     217
Modernization: The Western and Non-Western Worlds (figure)     218
Terrorism and the Clash of Civilizations     218
The Future after 9-11-01      219
Religious Terrorism     221
The War in Iraq     222
War, Oil, and Instability in the Middle East (map)     223
Globalization     223
Ecological Threats (text and chart)     224

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