Ge considers, for example, the ancient concept of tianxia, or All-Under-Heaven, which assigned supremacy to the imperial court and lesser status to officials, citizens, tributary states, and tribal peoples. Does China’s government still operate with a belief in divine rule of All-Under-Heaven, or has it taken a different view of other actors, inside and outside its current borders? Responding both to Western theories of the nation-state and to Chinese intellectuals eager to promote “national learning,” Ge offers an insightful and erudite account of how China sees its place in the world. As he wrestles with complex historical and cultural forces guiding the inner workings of an often misunderstood nation, Ge also teases out many nuances of China’s encounter with the contemporary world, using China’s past to explain aspects of its present and to provide insight into various paths the nation might follow as the twenty-first century unfolds.
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About the Author
Department of History at Fudan University in Shanghai.
Table of Contents
Translator's Introduction ix
Introduction: On the Historical Formation of "China" and the Dilemma of Chinese Identity 1
1 Worldviews: From "All-under-Heaven" in Ancient China to the "Myriad States" in the Modern World 28
2 Borders: On "Chinese" Territory 50
3 Ethnicity: Including the "Four Barbarians" in "China"? 64
4 History: Chinese Culture from a Long-Term Perspective 95
5 Peripheries: How China, Korea, and Japan Have Understood One Another since the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries 122
6 Practical Questions: Will Cultural Differences between China and the West Lead to Conflict? 134