By focusing on material most relevant to the Introductory Psychology course while maintaining the narrative flow, authors Ellen Pastorino and Susann Doyle-Portillo invite students to see the big picture of psychology as opposed to a collection of fragmented ideas. With an unparalleled integration of diversity, applications, and critical thinking, WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? captures and holds students' interest using "The Big Picture," a real life story of a person whose experience illustrates the concepts of the chapter. Upon entering this course, today's students ask "Why should Psychology matter to me?" Drawing from their own research and first-hand work in classrooms on assessment, inclusion, and reaching under-prepared students, Pastorino and Doyle-Portillo answer this question using practical everyday examples focused on the student (e.g., asking students to design a research study based on the hypothesis that listening to rock and roll facilitates studying).
About the Author
Ellen E. Pastorino (Ph.D., Florida State University) is a developmental psychologist who established her teaching career at Gainesville State College in Georgia. As a tenured professor, she created and developed the college's Teaching and Learning Center, working with faculty to promote student learning. For the past 16 years, she has been teaching at Valencia College in Orlando, Florida. Here, too, she has worked with faculty in designing learning-centered classroom practices. Ellen has won numerous teaching awards, including the University of Georgia Board of Regents Distinguished Professor, the NISOD Excellence in Teaching Award, and Valencia's Teaching and Learning Excellence Award. Ellen has published articles in the Journal of Adolescent Research and Adolescence and actively participates in many regional and national teaching conferences. However, her main passion has always been to get students excited about the field of psychology. Ellen is a member of the Association for Psychological Science (APS) and currently serves as the Discipline Coordinator of Psychological Sciences at Valencia's Osceola campus. She has authored test banks, instructor manuals, and student study guides. While working as a consultant for IBM Corporation, she developed numerous educational materials for teachers and students. Her current interests include assessment, inclusion, service learning, and reaching underprepared students. Ellen strives to balance her professional responsibilities with her love of physical fitness and family life.
Susann M. Doyle-Portillo (Ph.D., social cognition, University of Oklahoma) is a professor of psychological science at the University of North Georgia. Previously, she taught at Gainesville State College for nearly 19 years. Prior to her doctoral program, Susann earned bachelor's degrees in engineering and psychology. This exposure to both the hard sciences and the social sciences helped to ground her firmly in the experimental tradition of psychology. She has published articles in Social Cognition and Contemporary Social Psychology, but the main focus of her career has been and will always be teaching. Susann has earned a reputation as an excellent but challenging instructor. In 2010, she was awarded the Gainesville State College Best Practices Award for her teaching, and in 2011 she was a recipient of a Gainesville State College Foundation Innovative Teaching Grant Award. In addition, she has three times been listed in Who's Who Among America's Teachers. Susann is also actively engaged in student learning outside the classroom. One of her major goals is to help students learn by getting them involved in conducting original research. Susann and her research team are currently investigating the connection between individual difference variables and online behavior, factors affecting eyewitness testimony, and griefing among gamers.
Table of Contents
1. WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? The Big Picture: What Do Psychologists See? "September 11th: Illustrating the Diversity and Complexity of Psychology." Correcting Common Misconceptions About the Field of Psychology. So, What Is Psychology? The Origins of Psychology. Careers in Psychology. Psychological Research. Issues in Psychological Research. 2. HOW DOES BIOLOGY INFLUENCE OUR BEHAVIOR? The Big Picture: What Would We be Without a Brain? "Jean-Dominque Bauby's The Diving Bell and the Butterfly: The Story of a Man Trapped in His Own Body." Communication within the Brain and Body. Billions of Neurons: Communication in the Brain. Neurotransmitters: Chemical Messengers in the Brain. The Structure of the Nervous System. The Brain and Spine: The Central Nervous System. Techniques for Studying the Brain. The Endocrine System: Hormones and Behavior. Becoming Who We Are: Genetics and Biology. Are You Getting the Big Picture? 3. HOW DO WE SENSE AND PERCEIVE OUR WORLD? The Big Picture: How Do We Take It All In? "Richard Cytowic's The Man Who Tasted Shapes: Do You Like Your Chicken "Pointy"?" Measuring Sensation and Perception. Vision. Hearing. Taste, Smell, and the Body Senses. Perception and Our Perceptual Organization. Perception and Our Perceptual Organization: Perceiving Shape, Size, and Brightness. The Accuracy of Perception. Are You Getting the Big Picture? 4. CONSCIOUSNESS: WIDE AWAKE, IN A DAZE, OR DREAMING? The Big Picture: What is Consciousness? "Dave Pelzer's A Child Called It: One Man's Experience With Altered States." Sleep, Dreaming, and Circadian Rhythm. Hypnosis: Real or Imagined? Psychoactive Drugs. Are You Getting the Big Picture? 5. HOW DO WE LEARN? The Big Picture: Lifetimes of Experience "Michael Apted's 42Up: A British Filmmaker Tracks a Group of Children as They Learn About Life From Age 7 to Age 42." Defining Learning: In and Beyond the Classroom. Orienting and Habitutation: Learning to Ignore. Classical Conditioning: Learning Through the Association of Stimuli. Instrumental and Operant Conditioning: Learning from the Consequences of Our Actions. Social Learning or Modeling. Are You Getting the Big Picture? 6. HOW DOES MEMORY FUNCTION? The Big Picture: Memory's Imperfections. "A Story of Mistaken Identity: Mellissa Gammill's Nightmare." The Functions of Memory: Encoding, Storing, and Retrieving. The Traditional Three Stages Model of Memory. Long-term Memory: Permanent Storage. Retrieval and Forgetting: Random Access Memory? Is Memory Accurate? Improving Your Memory: Tips to Remember. The Biology of Memory. Are You Getting the Big Picture? 7. COGNITION, LANGUAGE, AND INTELLIGENCE: HOW DO WE THINK? The Big Picture: A Life Without Language? "Susan Schaller's A Man Without Words: The Story of Ildelfonso, a Deaf Man Who Didn't Know that Language Existed." Thinking: How We Use What We Know. Problem Solving: Where Does Our Thinking Get Us? Reasoning, Decision-Making and Judgment. Language: Essential to Thought and Action. Defining and Measuring Intelligence. Are You Getting the Big Picture? 8. MOTIVATION AND EMOTION: WHAT GUIDES OUR BEHAVIOR? The Big Picture: Why We Do What We Do. "Marya Hornbacher's Wasted: One Woman's Life-Long Struggles with Eating Disorders." Theories About Motivation. Hunger and Thirst: What Makes Us Eat and Drink? The Puzzle of Destructive Motivation. Theories and Expression of Emotion. Are You Getting the Big Picture? 9. HOW DO CHILDREN GROW, CHANGE, AND DEVELOP? The Big Picture: What is Childhood All About? "Frank McCourt's Angela's Ashes: A Child Develops in Poverty." Why Study Development? Prenatal Development. Physical Development: Growing, Moving, and Exploring. Cognitive Development: Perceiving and Thinking. Moral Reasoning: How We Think About Right and Wrong. Social Development. Personality Development. Are You Getting the Big Picture? 10. HOW DO ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS CHANGE AND DEVELOP? The Big Picture: The Changes and Challenges of Life "Helie Lee's Still Life with Rice: One Woman's Passage Through Adolescence and Adulthood." Physical Changes in Adolescence and Adulthood. Cognitive Changes in Adolescence and Adulthood. Psychological Transitions in Adolescence and Adulthood. Social Relations in Adolescence and Adulthood. Adult Development and the World of Work. Death and Dying. Are You Getting the Big Picture? 11. HOW DOES GENDER & SEXUALITY IMPACT OUR BEHAVIOR? The Big Picture: Developing a Gender and Sexual Identity "Jeffrey Elliot's (Editor) Conversations with Maya Angelou: How Gender and Sexuality Impacted her Life." Gender Identity and Gender Differences. Sexual Behavior and Attitudes: And the Survey Says… Sexual Orientation. Sexual Arousal and Response. Sexual Disorders. Sexual Coercion. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Are You Getting the Big Picture? 12. HOW DO WE UNDERSTAND AND RELATE TO OTHERS? The Big Picture: What Does It Mean To Be A Social Animal? "Luis J. Rodriguez's Always Running: One Man's Life in L.A. Street Gangs." Attitudes and Attitude Change. How We Form Impressions of Others. Prejudice: How It Occurs and How To Reduce It. The Nature of Attraction. Groups and Group Influence. Requests and Demands: Compliance and Obedience. Aggression. Helping Behavior: Will You Or Won't You? Are You Getting the Big Picture? 13. HEALTH, STRESS & COPING: HOW CAN YOU CREATE A HEALTHY LIFE? The Big Picture: What Can Psychology Tell Us about Health? "Edward T. Pastorino: If You Have Your Health, You Have Everything." Stress and Stressors. The Stress Response: Is This Stress? How Do I React? Coping with Stress. Personality and Health. Lifestyle and Health. Are You Getting the Big Picture? 14. WHAT IS PERSONALITY AND HOW DO WE MEASURE IT? The Big Picture: Understanding Personality "James McBride's The Color of Water: The Story of a Family That is Full of Personality." The Psychoanalytic Approach: Sigmund Freud and the Neo-Freudians. The Trait Approach: Describing Personality. The Social Cognitive Approach: The Environment and Patterns of Thoughts. The Humanistic Approach: Free Will and Self-Actualization. Measuring Personality. Are You Getting the Big Picture? 15. WHAT ARE PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS AND HOW CAN WE UNDERSTAND THEM? The Big Picture: When a Beautiful Mind Goes Awry "Sylvia Nasar's A Beautiful Mind & Amy Tan's The Opposite of Fate: Four Stories on Mental Health." What Makes Behavior Abnormal? Three Perspectives to Explain Abnormal Behavior. The DSM Model for Classifying Abnormal Behavior. Anxiety Disorders: It's Not Just "Nerves". Mood Disorders: Beyond the Blues. Schizophrenic Disorders: Disintegration. Dissociative and Somatoform Disorders: Personalities and Illnesses. Personality Disorders: A Maladaptive Quirk. Are You Getting the Big Picture? 16. WHAT IS THERAPY? The Big Picture: The Ups and Downs of Life "Emily Fox Gordon's The Mockingbird Years: A Life in and Out of Therapy." Providing Psychological Assistance. Psychoanalytic Therapies: Uncovering Reasons for Psychological Problems. Humanistic Therapy: Empathizing to Empower. Behavior Therapies: Learning Healthier Behaviors. Cognitive Therapies: Thinking through Problems. Group Therapy Approaches: Strength in Numbers. Effective Psychotherapy: What Treatments Work? Biological and Medical Therapies: Changing the Chemistry. Are You Getting the Big Picture?