The U.S. Army faces global challenges that have required it to use reserve components in a manner unseen since World War II and the Korean War. Today, there are many questions and concerns about the future of the Army Reserve and National Guard due to the unprecedented, continued mobilization of these reserve components and problems involving retention. Without adequate retention of personnel, valuable experience and unit readiness are at risk. The Army would have to spend its limited resources to replace many seasoned soldiers with junior personnel or use more contractors who may not be as effective or efficient. This monograph examines Army Reserve and National Guard enlisted retention patterns from 1995-2002. It provides a necessary background to compare retention patterns in the past with those of today. This information will help reserve component leadership to assess their personnel retention efforts and adjust appropriate public policies to improve their force structure.