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Wilderness First Responder: A Text for the Recognition, Treatment, and Prevention of Wilderness Emergencies / Edition 2

Wilderness First Responder: A Text for the Recognition, Treatment, and Prevention of Wilderness Emergencies / Edition 2

by Buck Tilton

ISBN-10: 0762728019

ISBN-13: 9780762728015

Pub. Date: 03/09/2004

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Wilderness First Responder is a comprehensive text for the recognition, treatment, and prevention of wilderness emergencies. It's essential reading for wilderness educators, trip leaders, guides, search and rescue groups, and anyone who works or plays far from definitive medical care. This invaluable resource includes expert, step-by-step instructions, clear


Wilderness First Responder is a comprehensive text for the recognition, treatment, and prevention of wilderness emergencies. It's essential reading for wilderness educators, trip leaders, guides, search and rescue groups, and anyone who works or plays far from definitive medical care. This invaluable resource includes expert, step-by-step instructions, clear illustrations, and "Signs and Symptoms" sidebars designed to help you provide immediate care in the wilderness -- whenever you are more than an hour away from an ambulance or a hospital. You'll learn how to conduct a patient assessment, improvise when ideal materials are not handy, and decide whether or not to evacuate a patient. Buck Tilton, co-founder of the Wilderness Medicine Institute of the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS), wrote this book with more than a dozen medical professionals. The book represents more than a century and a half of combined experience in wilderness medicine, rescue, and education. Thoroughly updated and revised, this classic first-ever teaching manual for the "Wilderness First Responder" course is a must-have for anyone venturing into the backcountry.

Product Details

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Publication date:
Edition description:
Second edition
Product dimensions:
8.50(w) x 11.00(h) x 0.60(d)

Table of Contents

List of Figuresxi
Section IIntroduction
1.Wilderness Emergency Medical Care3
First Response and Responsibility3
A Brief History of Wilderness Medicine4
Wilderness Medicine vs. Urban Medicine5
2.Legal Issues in Wilderness Medicine7
Civil Law and the WFR7
Legal Considerations8
Legal Protection9
Section IIPatient Assessment and Initial Concerns
3.Patient Assessment13
Stop! Size up the Scene13
Stop! Assess the Patient for Immediate Threats to Life15
Stop! Complete a Focused Exam and Patient History17
Stop! Document and Report the Event26
Stop! Monitor the Patient's Condition26
4.Airway and Breathing29
Basic Anatomy of the Airway29
Assessing the Airway30
Foreign-Body Airway Obstruction: Conscious Adult31
Rescue Breathing32
Recovery Position34
Evacuation Guidelines34
5.Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation35
Basic Anatomy of the Heart35
Cardiac Arrest and CPR36
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation36
Adult One-Rescuer CPR37
Complications Caused by CPR38
Criteria for Stopping CPR38
Special Considerations for the Wilderness38
Specific Wilderness Situations39
Evacuation Guidelines39
Types of Bleeding41
Body Response to Bleeding41
Control of External Bleeding42
Internal Bleeding44
Evacuation Guidelines44
Basic Anatomy and Physiology of the Cardiovascular System45
Types and Causes of Shock46
Stages of Shock47
Risk Factors49
Management of Shock49
Evacuation Guidelines50
8.Spine Injuries51
Basic Anatomy of the Spine51
Mechanisms of Injury52
Types of Spinal Cord Injuries52
General Assessment of the Spine53
Treatment for Suspected Spinal Injury53
Lifting and Moving a Patient54
Special Considerations for the Wilderness56
The Focused Spine Assessment57
Evacuation Guidelines58
Section IIITraumatic Injuries
9.Head Injuries61
Basic Anatomy of the Head61
Types of Head Injuries61
Levels of Head Injury64
Treatment for Serious Head Injury65
Evacuation Guidelines65
10.Chest Injuries67
Basic Anatomy of the Chest and Normal Breathing67
Types of Chest Injuries68
General Treatment Guidelines72
Evacuation Guidelines72
11.Abdominal Injuries73
Basic Anatomy of the Abdomen73
General Abdominal Trauma Assessment74
Blunt Trauma Assessment and Treatment75
Penetrating Trauma Assessment and Treatment75
Evacuation Guidelines75
Basic Anatomy of the Musculoskeletal System77
Types of Fractures77
General Assessment of a Fracture78
General Principles of Fracture Treatment78
Specific Treatment for Upper Body Fractures80
Specific Treatment for Lower Body Fractures82
Complicated Fractures85
Evacuation Guidelines86
General Assessment and Treatment of Dislocations88
Specific Treatment for Upper Body Dislocations88
Specific Treatment for Lower Body Dislocations90
Long-Term Care for Dislocations91
Evacuation Guidelines92
14.Athletic Injuries93
General Assessment of Athletic Injuries93
General Treatment of Athletic Injuries94
Specific Treatment for General Types of Athletic Injuries95
Specific Treatment for Specific Athletic Injuries96
Prevention of Athletic Injuries101
Evacuation Guidelines101
15.Wilderness Wound Management103
Basic Anatomy of the Skin103
Types of Wounds104
General Wound Management104
Management of Specific Wounds105
Evacuation Guidelines for Wounds108
Wilderness Burn Management109
Evacuation Guidelines for Burns110
General Wound Infection Management111
Evacuation Guidelines for Infected Wounds111
Section IVEnvironmental Emergencies
16.Cold-Induced Emergencies115
Heat Production115
Heat Loss116
Nonfreezing Cold Injury122
Evacuation Guidelines122
17.Heat-Induced Emergencies123
Heat Cramps124
Heat Exhaustion124
Prevention of Heat-Induced Emergencies126
Evacuation Guidelines127
18.Altitude Illnesses129
Acute Mountain Sickness130
High-Altitude Cerebral Edema130
High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema132
Prevention of Altitude Illnesses132
Evacuation Guidelines133
19.Immersion and Submersion Incidents135
Evacuation Guidelines137
20.Lightning Injuries139
Mechanisms of Injury140
Types of Injuries140
Management of the Patient140
Prevention of Lightning Injuries140
Evacuation Guidelines141
21.North American Bites and Stings143
Dangerous Marine Life153
Evacuation Guidelines155
22.Diving Emergencies157
Physical Principles of Diving157
Types of Barotrauma158
Other Diving Disorders159
Prevention of Diving Emergencies160
Evacuation Guidelines160
Section VMedical Emergencies
23.Cardiac Emergencies163
Types of Cardiac Emergencies163
General Treatment for Cardiac Emergencies165
Evacuation Guidelines166
24.Respiratory Emergencies167
Types of Respiratory Emergencies167
Evacuation Guidelines170
25.Neurological Emergencies173
Basic Anatomy of the Brain173
Unconscious States173
Types of Neurological Emergencies174
Evacuation Guidelines176
26.Diabetic Emergencies177
Normal Physiology177
Diabetic Physiology178
Diabetics in the Wilderness179
Prevention of Diabetic Emergencies179
Evacuation Guidelines180
27.Poisoning Emergencies181
Ingested Poisons181
Treatment for Ingested Poisons183
Inhaled Poisons183
Treatment for Inhaled Poisons184
Absorbed Poisons184
Injected Poisons184
General Treatment Guidelines for Poisonings184
Evacuation Guidelines184
28.Allergic Reactions and Anaphylaxis185
Allergic Reactions185
Evacuation Guidelines188
29.Abdominal Illnesses189
General Abdominal Illness Assessment189
Some Types of Abdominal Illnesses190
General Treatment for Abdominal Illnesses192
Evacuation Guidelines192
30.Communicable Diseases and Camp Hygiene193
Agents of Infection193
Communication of Disease194
Some Specific Communicable Diseases194
Camp Hygiene195
Principles of Camp Hygiene198
Section VISpecial Emergencies
31.Common Simple Medical Problems201
Eye Injuries202
Ear Injuries203
Nose Injuries204
Skin Damage204
Gastrointestinal Problems208
Flu-Like Illness209
Solar Radiation Problems211
Motion Sickness212
Dental Problems213
Other Mouth Problems214
32.Gender-Specific Emergencies215
General Assessment Guidelines for Gender-Specific Emergencies215
Basic Anatomy of the Male Genitalia215
Male-Specific Emergencies216
Basic Anatomy of the Female Genitalia217
Female-Specific Emergencies217
33.Obstetrical Emergencies221
Basic Anatomy and Physiology of Pregnancy221
Obstetrical Emergencies222
Normal Childbirth223
Complications of Delivery226
Evacuation Guidelines226
34.Psychological and Behavioral Emergencies229
Normal Responses to Crisis229
Critical-Incident Stress230
Basic Psychological Impairment232
Evacuation Guidelines233
Section VIISpecial Concerns
35.Emergency Procedures for Outdoor Groups237
Trip Plans237
Evacuation Organization238
Managing a Lost Person Incident240
36.Wilderness Transportation of the Sick or Injured243
One-Rescuer Carries243
Two-Rescuer Carries245
Horse Transports250
Vehicle Tansports250
37.Wilderness Medical Kits253
General Guidelines for Wilderness Medical Kits253
Specific Considerations for Wilderness Medical Kits254
A.Oxygen and Mechanical Aids to Breathing259
Oxygen and Respiration259
Supplemental Oxygen Safety259
The Tank259
The Regulator259
Oxygen Therapy260
Airway Maintenance260
Passive Delivery261
Positive Pressure Delivery262
B.Automated External Defibrillation265
The AED265
Operational Procedures265
C.Basic Life Support for Healthcare Providers267
Adult Two-Rescuer CPR267
Child and Infant CPR267
Foreign-Body Airway Obstructions268
Rescue Breathing for Children and Infants270
About the Author305
About WMI and NOLS306

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