Windows NT, Terminal Server Edition (TSE) is an extension to NT Server that allows applications to run one centralized location while being presented on multiple client devices. Designed to decrease total cost of ownership, when used in conjunction with Citrix's MetaFrame product. TSE has also resulted in dramatic (500% or more) performance increase in standard NT administration tools and some database applications. A new edition is necessary to document this new functionality, and also the challenges that system architects will have to address as they design their W2K networks and then transition from Windows NT to W2K. Windows 2000 Thin Client Solutions follows the organization of the previous edition, but includes changes to discussions affected by W2K's release, including coverage of scalability and security. Additional chapters on installation of terminal services and MetaFrame on a W2K server, as well as chapters on TSE management, remote access, and application integration.
About the Author
Todd W. Mathers is a thin-client technology consultant and software developer who specializes in the planning and deployment of Microsoft Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame. An architect of Citrix implementations since 1996, Todd continues to be involved in enterprise-scale projects for major corporations throughout North America. He is also the founder of the Noisy River Software Corporation, which implements thin client solutions and develops software specifically for Terminal Server and MetaFrame. Todd holds an Honours Bachelor of Mathematics degree in computer science from the University of Waterloo. Todd is also the author of the best-selling book, Windows NT Thin Client Solutions: Implementing Terminal Server and Citrix MetaFrame (MTP, 1998).
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Chapter 1: Going Thin with Terminal ServerThe Total Cost of Ownership
The idea of reducing the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) is a simple one: Maximize the company's return on investment in technology while minimizing the cost involved in doing so. Terminal Server provides the ability to reduce the TCO of supporting users and their local workstations.
Moving the application processing completely off the user's desktop provides much greater flexibility in the implementation process than you would have with a standard desktop deployment.
Reusing Existing Technology Although a business may be interested in standardizing on the latest Windows-based applications, the heterogeneous computing environment of most companies doesn't allow for this change without replacing or upgrading the existing hardware. Terminal Server and MetaFrame provide the mechanism to deliver these new applications while at the same time extending the life of existing desktop hardware.
Centralized System Management
Terminal Server centralizes the management of three components that traditionally exist on the user's desktop: application support and maintenance, maintenance of the operating system, and storage management.
An important requirement for implementing Terminal Server and MetaFrame is the ability to scale to meet the changing needs of a business.
In addition to the standard Windows NT/2000 Security, Terminal Server includes features that enable you to establish a secure environ ment in which your user will operate.
The Total Cost of OwnershipWhenever someonementions the words "thin client," he or she usually follows it with a discussion of how it can do things such as reduce the cost of end-user support, improve administrative controls for information technology (IT) managers, and provide a means of true rapid application deployment. All these benefits fall collectively under what is termed Total Cost o f Ownership (TCO). The idea of TCO is simple: Maximize the company's return on investment (ROI) in technology while minimizing the cost involved in doing so. The costs you're attempting to minimize can be broken down into two categories: hard costs and soft costs. Hard costs include all capital costs, such as hardware or software, and are usually easily quantifiable. Soft costs are most often associated with support issues at the end-user's desktop, but can also include server-side support as it pertains to the user. Recovering accidentally deleted data is a common example. In most situations the majority of the soft costs are incurred at the end-user's desktop. The soft costs are usually much more difficult to measure beforehand and are very often based on historical data.
Calculating the hard costs for a project is usually fairly straightforward. You determine the hardware and software required and then total their cost. The total amount of hard cost savings in a Terminal Server implementation will vary depending on the type and scope of the project and what other implementation options are available.
Because Terminal Server and MetaFrame allow both Windows and nonWindows systems (UNIX, Macintosh, Java) to access the latest 32-bit software (as well as many older 16-bit and DOS applications), under most circumstances they can reduce or eliminate the need to purchase new client hardware. This can result in a reduction in the hard costs associated with the project and hence lower the TCO. Unfortunately, this leads many people to believe that TCO is related only to the hard costs. This is not the correct way to evaluate the total cost of ownership.
Consider this example. Company C has 200 employees, 125 of whom have Pentium systems running Windows 95, while the other 75 have Pentium II systems running Windows NT Workstation 4.0. Company C wants to upgrade all employees to run Windows 2000 Professional, Office 2000, and a new 32-bit application being developed. In addition to this, the users need to be able to continue using any other business-related applications that they're using today. The company is trying to decide on one of two options:
- Update all Pentium computers to support Windows 2000 Professional.
- Provide access from the existing desktops to this new environment using Windows 2000 Terminal Services.
On the other hand, out of the 200 employees, the maximum number of concurrent users at any one time is only 100. Based on this fact, Company C determines that they could purchase two servers at approximately $25,000 per server, each of which would be able to support approximately 125 users. These two servers would be used to provide load balancing and completely support the environment if one failed.
Based on the hardware costs alone, the traditional desktop upgrade would cost $135,000 more than the Terminal Server solution.
Now consider this slightly different example. Once again we look at Company C, but this time all the computers are already capable of running Windows 2000 Professional, so no hardware upgrades are required. In this scenario, the Terminal Server implementation would incur an additional $50,000 in hardware costs...
Table of Contents
What's New? The Contents. Conventions Used in this Book.
I. AN OVERVIEW OF TERMINAL SERVER AND METAFRAME.
1. Going Thin with Terminal Server.
The Total Cost of Ownership. Implementation Flexibility. Reusing Existing Technology. Centralized System Management. Scalability. Enhancing Security.
2. Microsoft Windows Terminal Server.
What Is Windows Terminal Server? Application Servers Versus BackOffice Servers. Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP). Scalability. Terminal Server Management Tools. Terminal Server Clients. Terminal Server Licensing Requirements.
3. Citrix MetaFrame.
What Is MetaFrame? Independent Computing Architecture (ICA). Scalability. Citrix Server Farms. MetaFrame Management Tools. The ICA Client. MetaFrame Licensing.
II. PLANNING A TERMINAL SERVER IMPLEMENTATION.
4. Project Management Considerations.
Implementation Requirements. Business Process Management. Policies and Procedures.
5. Network Planning.
Terminal Server and Your Network. RDP and ICA. Printing Considerations. Dial-up Access. Internet Access.
6. Client Planning.
The Thin Client. RDP Client Support. ICA Client Support. Windows-Based Terminals. Deployment Scenarios with RDP and ICA. Client Deployment and Support Planning.
7. Server Hardware Planning.
The Assessment Process. Determining the Requirements. Hardware Sizing. Load Testing. Determining the Number of Required Servers.
8. Server Management Planning.
The Model for Terminal Server Management. The Theory of Terminal Server Management. Security Management. Application Management.
9. Software Planning.
Software Planning Overview. Administration and System Support Software. Application Software. Change Management.
III. IMPLEMENTING TERMINAL SERVER AND METAFRAME.
10. Terminal Server Installation.
Before You Begin. Windows NT Server 4.0, Terminal Server Edition Installation. Windows 2000 Terminal Services Installation.
11. MetaFrame Installation.
Before You Begin. Installing MetaFrame. Unattended Setup Mode. Uninstalling MetaFrame.
12. Terminal Server Configuration and Tuning.
Before You Begin. Service Packs and Hotfixes. Terminal Server Licensing Configuration. Terminal Server Stability and Availability. Terminal Server Performance Tuning. Terminal Server Security Configuration. Connection Configuration. Additional MetaFrame Configuration Options. Printer Drivers.
13. RDP Client Installation and Configuration.
RDP Client Installation. RDP Client Applications. RDP Client Configuration. RDP Client Deployment Options.
14. ICA Client Installation and Configuration.
ICA Client Installation. ICA Client Applications. ICA Client Configuration. Deploying the ICA Client.
15. Web Computing with MetaFrame.
Component Overview. Application Launching and Embedding. Citrix NFuse: Program Neighborhood for the Web. Citrix ICA Web Client Configuration. MetaFrame Server Configuration for Web Computing. Web Server Configuration. MetaFrame and Firewall Considerations.
16. Group and System Policy Configuration.
Introduction to Policies. Environment Preparation. Creating and Managing NT 4.0 System Policies. Creating and Managing Windows 2000 Group Policies.
17. User Profile and Account Configuration.
Introduction to Profiles. Environment Preparation. Creating and Managing User Profiles.
18. Server Operations and Support.
Terminal Server Operations. Server and User Session Management. Server Health Monitoring. Server Maintenance.
19. Application Integration.
The Challenge of Application Integration. Terminal Server Application Support Features. Application Integration Tools and Techniques. The Application Integration Process. Application Installation Examples.
Appendix A. Terminal Server/MetaFrame Command Reference.
ACLCHECK (TSE 4.0/MetaFrame). ACLSET (TSE 4.0/MetaFrame). ALTADDR (TSE 4.0/MetaFrame)(TS 2000/MetaFrame). APP (TSE 4.0/MetaFrame)(TS 2000/MetaFrame). APPSEC (TSE 4.0)(TS 2000). AUDITLOG (TSE 4.0/MetaFrame)(TS 2000/MetaFrame). CHANGE CLIENT (TSE 4.0/MetaFrame) (TS 2000/MetaFrame). CHANGE LOGON (TSE 4.0)(TS 2000). CHANGE PORT (TSE 4.0)(TS 2000). CHANGE USER (TSE 4.0)(TS 2000). CLTPRINT (TSE 4.0/MetaFrame)(TS 2000/MetaFrame). CNVRTUC (TSE 4.0). CONNECT (TSE 4.0). CPROFILE (TSE 4.0)(TS 2000). DISCONN (TSE 4.0). DOSKBD (TSE 4.0). FLATTEMP (TSE 4.0)(TS 2000). ICAPORT (TSE 4.0/MetaFrame)(TS 2000/MetaFrame). KILL (TSE 4.0). LOGOFF (TSE 4.0)(TS 2000). MSG (TSE 4.0)(TS 2000). NDSPSVR (TSE 4.0/MetaFrame)(TS 2000/MetaFrame). PERUSER (TSE 4.0). QUERY ACL (TSE 4.0/MetaFrame) (TS 2000/MetaFrame). QUERY LICENSE (TSE 4.0/MetaFrame) (TS 2000/MetaFrame). QUERY PROCESS (TSE 4.0)(TS 2000). QUERY SERVER (TSE 4.0/MetaFrame) (TS 2000/MetaFrame). QUERY SESSION (TSE 4.0)(TS 2000). QUERY TERMSERVER (TSE 4.0)(TS 2000). QUERY USER (TSE 4.0)(TS 2000). QUERYWINSTA (TSE 4.0) (TS 2000). REGISTER (TSE 4.0)(TS 2000). RESET SESSION (TSE 4.0)(TS 2000). RESET WINSTA (TSE 4.0)(TS 2000). RMVICA (TSE 4.0/MetaFrame)(TS 2000/MetaFrame). SHADOW (TSE 4.0/MetaFrame)(TS 2000). SHUTDOWN (TSE 4.0). TSCON (TS 2000). TSDISCON (TS 2000). TSKILL (TS 2000). TSPROF (TSE 4.0)(TS 2000). TSSHUTDN (TS 2000).
Appendix B. Network Primer.
The OSI Model. Communications Protocols. Physical and Logical Networks.
Appendix C. File and Folder Security Primer.
Windows NT 4.0 File System Security. Windows 2000 File System Security. Calculating Permissions.
Appendix D. Terminal Server System and Application Volume Security Permissions.
Windows NT 4.0, Terminal Server Edition. Windows 2000 Terminal Services.
Appendix E. Registry Security Primer.
The Need for Registry Security. Registry Components. Registry Security Permissions. Registry Hive Files. REGEDT32 and REGEDIT.
Appendix F. Terminal Server Registry Security Permissions.
Windows NT 4.0, Terminal Server Edition. Windows 2000 Terminal Services.