During the past several decades considerable interest has developed in the United States for the wines that are produced in small wineries across our nation. This in terest continues to intensify, especially for the truly good wines that are reason ably priced. Consumers are unforgiving. Second-class wines will not be accept able just because a vintner may be newly established. The functions that must take place in the small estate-type wine cellar and the controls that can be realistically exercised by winemasters are essential in the creation of superior products. Although wine can be a comparatively simple food to produce, it is a very vast topic. Perhaps much the same as with other art forms, it is the infinite variability offactors at the root ofthe subject that renders it so complex. There are hundreds of different vine varieties cultivated around the world, and doubtlessly an even greater number of fruit and berry cultivars. Combined with such factors as soils, climates and mesoclimates (which may change with each vintage season), culti vation techniques, harvesting criteria, and overall operational philosophy, one can easily understand the enormous breadth and depth of variation which exits. This diversity, along with more than 5 years of enological development, generates a number of different wine possibilities that can only be conceived as something vastly exponential.
Table of ContentsIntroduction. History of Wine In America. Eastern America. Western America. National Prohibition. American Wine in the 20th Century. The American Wine Booms. Viticulture (Grape Growing). Site Selection. The Vine. Vitis Vinifera. Vitis Riparia. Vitis Rotundifolia. Hybrids and Grafting. French-American Hybrids. Vineyard Establishments -Trellising. Vineyard Management. Wine Microbiology. The Microbiology Workplace. Yeasts. Bacteria. Molds. Equipment. Factors Affecting Microbial Growth Commercial Starter Cultures. Microbial Spoilage in Juice and Must. Microbial Spoilage of Juice Concentrates. Microbial Spoilage of Bulk Wine. Microbial Spoilage of Bottled Wine. Winery Sanitation. Enology Grape and Wine Components. Pectic Enzymes. Sugars and Sweetness. Late-Harvest Grapes. Acid Acids and Ph. Oxygen and Oxidation. Sulfur Dioxide Phenols, Phenolics, and Polyphenols Color. Nitrogenous Compounds-Proteins. Grape Flavors. Malo-Lactic Fermentations. Wine Blending. Fining, Detartration. Barrel Aging. Soda Ash Treatment. Chlorine Treatment. Citric Acid Treatment. Filtration Packaging. Wine Classification. Table Wines. Sparkling Wines. Dessert Wines. Aperitif Wines. Pop Wines. Winery Design. Management Feasibility and Finance. Insurance. Location. Scale and Size. Design Motif. Case Studies. Requirement, Restrictions and Regulations. Application for Basic Permit Application To Establish and Operate Wine Premises. Bonds. Environmental Impact. Personnel Questionnaire. Signature Authority. Label Approvals. Formula Wines. State ABC Regulations. Getting Started. Record Keeping. Sanitation. Quality Control. Analytical Instrumentation. Winery Equipment. Material. White Table Wines. Fruit Flavor Intensity. Harvesting. Crushing Destemming. Pressing. Brix (Sugar) Adjustments. Acid Additions. Yeast Inoculation. Fermentation. Struck Fermentation Racking. Second Racking. Blending. Malo Lactic Fermentation. Fining and Stabilization. Barrel Aging. Balancing and Preservation. Filtration Bottling and Corking. Bottle Aging. Packaging. Records. Red Table Wines. Grape Varieties. Increasing Red Wine Fruit Flavor Intensity. Harvesting. Crushing Destemming. Brix (Sugar) Adjustments. Acid Additions. Yeast Inoculation. Pressing. Fermentation. Maceration. Free-Run and Press Wine. Racking. Blending. Malo Lactic Fermentation. Fining And Stabilization. Barrel Aging. Balancing and Preservation. Filtration. Bottling and Corking. Bottle Aging. Packaging. Records. Blush Table Wines. Grapes. Varieties. Crushing-Destemming. Sugar and Acidity Adjustments and Yeast Inoculation. Pressing and Fermentation. Rackings. Blending. Clarification and Stabilization. Aging, Balancing, and Preservation. Filtration. Bottling. Corking and Recorking. Fruit and Berry Wines. Apple Wine. Bramble Berry Wine. Blueberry Wine. Cherry Wine. Peach Wine. Strawberry Wine. Dried Fruit Wines. Mead. Marketing. Marketing Budget. The Marketing Plan. Trade Associations. Public Relations. Media Relations. Advertising. Sales Promotion. Sales Marketing Feedback. Appendix. Glossary. Bibliography