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Wireless Sensor Networks / Edition 1

Wireless Sensor Networks / Edition 1

by Ian F. Akyildiz, Mehmet Can Vuran
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This book presents an in-depth study on the recent advances in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The authors describe the existing WSN applications and discuss the research efforts being undertaken in this field. Theoretical analysis and factors influencing protocol design are also highlighted. The authors explore state-of-the-art protocols for WSN protocol stack in transport, routing, data link, and physical layers. Moreover, the synchronization and localization problems in WSNs are investigated along with existing solutions. Furthermore, cross-layer solutions are described. Finally, developing areas of WSNs including sensor-actor networks, multimedia sensor networks, and WSN applications in underwater and underground environments are explored. The book is written in an accessible, textbook style, and includes problems and solutions to assist learning.

Key Features:

  • The ultimate guide to recent advances and research into WSNs
  • Discusses the most important problems and issues that arise when programming and designing WSN systems
  • Shows why the unique features of WSNs – self-organization, cooperation, correlation — will enable new applications that will provide the end user with intelligence and a better understanding of the environment
  • Provides an overview of the existing evaluation approaches for WSNs including physical testbeds and software simulation environments
  • Includes examples and learning exercises with a solutions manual; supplemented by an accompanying website containing PPT-slides.

Wireless Sensor Networks is an essential textbook for advanced students on courses in wireless communications, networking and computer science. It will also be of interest to researchers, system and chip designers, network planners, technical mangers and other professionals in these fields.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780470036013
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 09/07/2010
Series: Advanced Texts in Communications and Networking Series , #6
Pages: 516
Product dimensions: 6.90(w) x 9.70(h) x 1.40(d)

About the Author

Dr. Ian F. Akyildiz is Ken Byers Distinguished Chair Professor in Telecommunications at the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Director of the Broadband and Wireless Networking Laboratory. Current research interests are Sensor Networks, InterPlanetary Internet, Wireless Networks, Satellite Networks and Next Generation Internet. 'Ian has published over 200 journal and conference papers, is Editor-in-Chief of the Computer Networks and Ad Hoc Networks Journals (Elsevier), and an Editor for the ACM-Kluwer Journal of Wireless Networks. Ian is an IEEE Fellow (1996) with the citation: "For contributions to performance analysis of computer communication networks," and an ACM Fellow (1997) "for fundamental research contributions in: finite capacity queuing network models; performance evaluation of Time Warp parallel simulations; traffic Control in ATM networks, and mobility management in wireless networks".

M. Can Vuran received his B.Sc. degree in electrical and electronics engineering from Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey, in 2002. He received his M.S. degree in electrical and computer engineering from the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, in 2004. He is currently a Research Assistant in the Broadband and Wireless Networking Laboratory and pursuing his Ph.D. degree at the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology. His current research interests include cross-layer communication protocols for heterogeneous wireless architectures, wireless sensor networks, next generation wireless networks and deep space communication networks.

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Table of Contents

About the Series Editor xvii

Preface xix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Sensor Mote Platforms 2

1.2 WSN Architecture and Protocol Stack 10

References 15

2 WSN Applications 17

2.1 Military Applications 17

2.2 Environmental Applications 21

2.3 Health Applications 26

2.4 Home Applications 29

2.5 Industrial Applications 31

References 33

3 Factors Influencing WSN Design 37

3.1 Hardware Constraints 37

3.2 Fault Tolerance 39

3.3 Scalability 40

3.4 Production Costs 40

3.5 WSN Topology 40

3.6 Transmission Media 41

3.7 Power Consumption 43

References 49

4 Physical Layer 53

4.1 Physical Layer Technologies 53

4.2 Overview of RF Wireless Communication 57

4.3 Channel Coding (Error Control Coding) 59

4.4 Modulation 62

4.5 Wireless Channel Effects 66

4.6 PHY Layer Standards 72

References 75

5 Medium Access Control 77

5.1 Challenges for MAC 77

5.2 CSMA Mechanism 80

5.3 Contention-Based Medium Access 83

5.4 Reservation-Based Medium Access 103

5.5 Hybrid Medium Access 110

References 115

6 Error Control 117

6.1 Classification of Error Control Schemes 117

6.2 Error Control in WSNs 120

6.3 Cross-layer Analysis Model 123

6.4 Comparison of Error Control Schemes 131

References 137

7 Network Layer 139

7.1 Challenges for Routing 139

7.2 Data-centric and Flat-Architecture Protocols 141

7.3 Hierarchical Protocols 148

7.4 Geographical Routing Protocols 152

7.5 QoS-Based Protocols 159

References 163

8 Transport Layer 167

8.1 Challenges for Transport Layer 167

8.2 Reliable Multi-Segment Transport (RMST) Protocol 169

8.3 Pump Slowly, Fetch Quickly (PSFQ) Protocol 171

8.4 Congestion Detection and Avoidance (CODA) Protocol 175

8.5 Event-to-Sink Reliable Transport (ESRT) Protocol 177

8.6 GARUDA 180

8.7 Real-Time and Reliable Transport (RT)2 Protocol 185

References 189

9 Application Layer 191

9.1 Source Coding (Data Compression) 191

9.2 Query Processing 195

9.3 Network Management 212

References 218

10 Cross-layer Solutions 221

10.1 Interlayer Effects 222

10.2 Cross-layer Interactions 224

10.3 Cross-layer Module 229

References 240

11 Time Synchronization 243

11.1 Challenges for Time Synchronization 243

11.2 Network Time Protocol 245

11.3 Definitions 246

11.4 Timing-Sync Protocol for Sensor Networks (TPSN) 248

11.5 Reference-Broadcast Synchronization (RBS) 251

11.6 Adaptive Clock Synchronization (ACS) 253

11.7 Time Diffusion Synchronization Protocol (TDP) 254

11.8 Rate-Based Diffusion Protocol (RDP) 257

11.9 Tiny- and Mini-Sync Protocols 258

11.10 Other Protocols 260

References 262

12 Localization 265

12.1 Challenges in Localization 265

12.2 Ranging Techniques 268

12.3 Range-Based Localization Protocols 272

12.4 Range-Free Localization Protocols 280

References 284

13 Topology Management 287

13.1 Deployment 288

13.2 Power Control 289

13.3 Activity Scheduling 296

13.4 Clustering 308

References 317

14 Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks 319

14.1 Characteristics of WSANs 321

14.2 Sensor–Actor Coordination 325

14.3 Actor–Actor Coordination 337

14.4 WSAN Protocol Stack 345

References 348

15 Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks 349

15.1 Design Challenges 350

15.2 Network Architecture 353

15.3 Multimedia Sensor Hardware 357

15.4 Physical Layer 365

15.5 MAC Layer 367

15.6 Error Control 371

15.7 Network Layer 374

15.8 Transport Layer 379

15.9 Application Layer 383

15.10 Cross-layer Design 388

15.11 Further Research Issues 392

References 394

16 Wireless Underwater Sensor Networks 399

16.1 Design Challenges 401

16.2 Underwater Sensor Network Components 402

16.3 Communication Architecture 405

16.4 Basics of Underwater Acoustic Propagation 409

16.5 Physical Layer 414

16.6 MAC Layer 416

16.7 Network Layer 426

16.8 Transport Layer 435

16.9 Application Layer 437

16.10 Cross-layer Design 437

References 440

17 Wireless Underground Sensor Networks 443

17.1 Applications 445

17.2 Design Challenges 447

17.3 Network Architecture 450

17.4 Underground Wireless Channel for EM Waves 453

17.5 Underground Wireless Channel for Magnetic Induction 463

17.6 Wireless Communication in Mines and Road/Subway Tunnels 466

17.7 Communication Architecture 474

References 480

18 Grand Challenges 483

18.1 Integration of Sensor Networks and the Internet 483

18.2 Real-Time and Multimedia Communication 484

18.3 Protocol Stack 485

18.4 Synchronization and Localization 485

18.5 WSNs in Challenging Environments 486

18.6 Practical Considerations 488

18.7 Wireless Nano-sensor Networks 488

References 489

Index 491

What People are Saying About This

From the Publisher

"It is intended for advanced students but also would be useful for researchers, system and chip designers, and other professionals in related fields." (Booknews, 1 February 2011)

"The book is written in an accessible, textbook style, and includes problems and solutions to assist learning." (Dark Fiber, 8 February 2011)

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Wireless Sensor Networks 4 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 1 reviews.
Boudville More than 1 year ago
Of the plentitude of topics covered in this book, the overarching theme is that energy efficiency is the most important property of a wireless sensor network [WSN]. A typical WSN has sensor nodes deployed with very limited energy. The only exception tends to be when nodes have solar panels, but as the reader will see, this is considered by the editors to be a rare instance of a WSN. The book points out that a TCP/IP implemention of a WSN can be prone to energy overuse, since TCP was never designed with energy efficiency as a constraint. Chapter 5 has a good explanation of Medium Access Control, including the important case of the hidden terminal problem. Overhearing is also a significant problem. This is where a node listens but has no data to transmit. The act of listening on a wireless channel consumes as much energy as transmitting. The typical solution is for nodes to periodically or even most of the time to sleep, to minimise the active duty cycle when the antenna is on. Reservation based protocols seem best, out of the various protocols in Chapter 5, because of collision free communication. This is aided by the common case of many WSN nodes having little data to transmit. However the book warns that the disadvantages are higher latency and overhead, compared to contention based protocols. Chapter 7 on the network layer suggests that the simplest algorithm is to flood. Gossiping is more efficient but can be much slower. However, a hierarchical protocol is often needed, to avoid exhaustion of nodes near the sink, as they are involved in relaying messages from nodes that are further away. The answer to go to a set of clusters, and only the cluster heads in each cluster are involved in relaying messages between clusters and to the sink. The transport layer is discussed in chapter 8. The main idea is that messages from the sink to a node need to be reliable, though the latency can be long, with no dropped messages. These messages are often control commands. However, messages from a node to the sink can tolerate losses, since there is often a redundancy in such data coming from nearby nodes. Chapter 9 on the application layer looks at trying to reduce the amount of data sent by nodes. Savings in reduced transmission energies often are greater than the cost of increased computational energy at the nodes doing the data compression. Where possible, in-network processing should be done. The idea of a WSN is extended to a Wireless Sensor and Actor Network [WSAN] in chapter 14. The actor refers to nodes that can perform actions, like follow a target object. As can be seen, an actor could be mobile, unlike a typical stationary sensor node. Also, an actor is likely to have more computational power and memory and communication bandwidth. The actors let the network close a control loop. Chapter 15 covers a wireless multimedia sensor network. These sensors might be directional, instead of scalar [omnidirectional]. The best example is where a sensor is a camera in the visible wavelengths. Such sensors have an orientation and also perhaps a focal length that can be varied; ie. a dynamic field of view is possible. The control logic for such sensors can be quite involved. The chapter also raises an intriguing idea. It talks about Multiple Input Multiple Output [MIMO] abilities, where sensors close to each other form a joint antenna. Each sensor acts as 1 antenna in a composite MIMO approach. Very complex, and it is unclear if